The "Economic Strategies" journal

2022 #5. 2022

Analysis of consumer perception in the space of image-forming factors. Part 2: Positions in comparison with competitors

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.26-49

This study considers the analytical principles of market object perception (goods, trademarks, firms) by consumer in the image-forming space, with an emphasis on the correctness of the application of methods and interpretation of results (in terms of comparing perceived positions with competitors’ positions against the consumer ideals). The proposed approach to analysis is based on the identification of factors that determine market processes and the construction of images of real goods / brands / firms in the perception of representatives of the target group. The issues of product / brand / company promotion are discussed based on the analysis of consumer perception. The presented approach is applied to solve some practical problems, such as identifying factors of perception of goods / brands / firms, building their images in the space of consumer attitudes, analyzing the configuration of images in comparison with the competitors and ideals, developing a strategy and essential details of promotion.


1. Aivazyan S.A., Buchstaber V.M., Enyukov I.S., Meshalkin L.D. Applied Statistics: Classification and Dimension Reduction. M.: Finance and statistics, 1989. 607 p. (In Russ.).

2. Zakuskin S.V. Analysis of consumer perception in the space of image-forming factors. Part 1. Positions in comparison with the ideal. Microeconomics. 2022;4:5-24. (In Russ.).

3. Zakuskin S.V. Analysis of rational preferences in the image-forming space. Microeconomics. 2022;1:40-54. (In Russ.).

4. Zakuskin S.V. Analysis of rational choice in the image-forming space. Microeconomics. 2021;5:14-29. (In Russ.).

5. Zakuskin S.V. Formation of integral indicators in marketing research based on the results of quantification. Creative Economy. 2021;15(5):2091-2114. (In Russ.).

6. Zakuskin S.V. Features of the analysis of formation and differentiation of market images in the space of rational relations/ Creative Economy. 2020;14:12. (In Russ.).

7. Zakuskin S.V. Controlling the movement of market images in a competitive environment. Creative Economy. 2020;14(10):2457-2480. (In Russ.).

8. Zakuskin S.V. Analysis of the competitive situation through the study of the configuration of images in the market space. Creative Economy. 2020;14(8):1795-1820. (In Russ.).

9. Zakuskin S.V. Analysis of differentiation of market images. Creative Economy. 2020;14(7):1447-1466. (In Russ.).

10. Zakuskin S.V. Analysis of the formation of market images. Creative Economy. 2020;14(6):1115-1136. (In Russ.).

11. Zakuskin S.V. The entertainment center services market: a look through the prism of image-forming factors. Part 7. Peculiarities of rational perception. Creative Economy. 2020;14(1):93-113. (In Russ.).

12. Zakuskin S.V. The entertainment center services market: a look through the prism of image-forming factors. Part 3. Peculiarities of emotional perception. Creative Economy. 2019;13(8):1573-1596. (In Russ.).

13. Kendall M., Stuart A. Theory of distributions. M.: Nauka, 1966. 588 p. (In Russ.).

Benchmarking as a continuous process of quality management and investment and innovation activities of Severstal Corporation PJSC

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.50-61

This article discusses benchmarking as a continuous process of quality management and investment and innovation activities on the example of PJSC Severstal Corporation.

The definition of the concept of «benchmarking» is given, its purpose, tasks, stages of implementation are shown. A comparison of Russian and foreign approaches in benchmarking is presented.

The results of benchmarking are shown, which identified shortcomings and gave directions for improving the efficiency of PJSC Severstal. Companies need to bet more on R&D and get better results from it. In recent years, against the background of the pandemic and economic sanctions, PJSC Severstal faced a lack of funds for the modernization and reconstruction of production facilities, with a mismatch with the structure of supply and demand.

The authors propose to reduce costs, develop the metal products market and introduce innovative technologies.


1. Al-Yavar A.A., Zharikov R.V., Bezpalov V.V. Improving the quality of products (services) of commercial organizations. Modern Economy Success. 2020;6:120-126. (In Russ).

2. Garipov A.S. The genesis of benchmarking in the time continuum. Bulletin of the Kazan State Financial and Economic Institute. 2007;4 (9):70-74. (In Russ.).

3. Devlet-Geldy G.K. Benchmarking as a tool for competitive development of modern enterprises. Problems of the economy. 2016;1 (71):42-46. (In Russ.).

4. Eroputova O.A. Analysis and evaluation of cash flows from investment operations of PJSC Severstal. The Scientific Heritage. 2022;86-3(86):17-20. (In Russ.).

5. Kozhemyako A.P. Benchmarking as a tool for analyzing target client groups. Quality management. 2020;4:314-322. (In Russ.).

6. May I. Knowledge management, production efficiency and benchmarking. Rationing and remuneration of labor in industry. 2010;7:52-55. (In Russ.).

7. Ostrovskaya V.N. Theory of SWOT analysis in competitive integration benchmarking. Economic sciences. 2008;47:64-67. (In Russ.).

8. Startseva M.V. The problem of using benchmarking in modern conditions. Economy and society. 2015;2-5(15):943-944. (In Russ.).

9. Silaeva A.V. Analysis of the financial results of the company’s activities on the example of PJSC Severstal for 2019-2021. A young scientist. 2022;23(418): 577-580. (In Russ.).

10. Tyupin N.A. Modern principles of benchmarking. Student. 2020:34-1(120):39-41. (In Russ.).

11. Chekeeva N.K. Benchmarking: conceptual apparatus. Bulletin of the Magistracy. 2017;12-3 (75):46-47. (In Russ.).

12. Shakirova N.N., Zhukovskaya S.L. Problems and possibilities of using financial benchmarking. Topical issues of the modern economy. 2022;4:609-616. (In Russ.).

13. Shuvarikov M.D. Principles of IFRS in the financial analysis of PJSC Severstal and PJSC NLMK. Economic security. 2021;4(3):839-852. (In Russ.).

14. Bezpalov V.V., Lochan S.A., Fedyunin D.V., Solopova N.A., Gorin D.S. Electric power industry development in the russian federation considering the structural trends of the world economy. Environment, Development and Sustainability. 2021.

Theoretical concepts and methodological approaches to understanding production theory and cost analysis in the context of digitalization in microeconomics

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.62-68

The article examines the effectiveness of using digital doubles in the main sectors of the Russian economy. It is shown how the use of digital doubles affects the structure of production costs. The authors of the article attempt to argue the fact that the use of digital doubles and digital databases will make exponential economic growth possible. This trend is explained by the consequence of the increase in the performance of digital doubles, due to the action of Gordon Moore’s law of technological progress (the first law of 1965) and Arthur Rock’s law (Moore’s second law of 1998). In this regard, the authors adopt a new approach to substantiating the specific manifestation of the law of diminishing returns. It is concluded that in the short term, the simultaneous use of advanced digital technologies and a digital analogue of live labor pushes the boundaries of the law of diminishing returns, ensuring an increase in returns from the scale of production at a new round of microeconomic development.


1. Digital doubles will help earn billions of dollars. URL:

2. What are digital doubles and where are they used? URL:

3. Tsarev M.V., Andreev Yu.S. Digital twins of industry: history of development, classification, technologies, usage scenarios. URL:

4. Kuntsman M.V. Activity of cartels as a threat of economic security. / M.V. Kuntsman, A.A. Sultygova. Modern fundamental and applied research. 2015;4(19):142-144.

5. Digital doubles will help the Russian agro-industrial complex. URL:

6. The digital twin of the building is a new stage in the development of construction technologies. URL:

7. Security and IT in transport and transport infrastructure facilities. URL:

8. Shvyreva A.S. Investment support of transport infrastructure for ensuring transport security in the Russian Federation / Shvyreva A.S., Kuntsman M.V., Sultygova A.A. Automobile. Road. Infrastructure. 2016;4(10):14.

9. Starodubtsev G.V. On the issue of using budget funds in road construction (on the example of European countries and the USA) / G. Starodubtsev, S. Atonyazov, M. Kuntsman, A. Sultygova. Automobile. Doroga. Infrastructure. 2016;3(9):7.

10. Digital twins in retail – who are they and why do you urgently need to get acquainted with them? URL:

11. What is Moore’s Law and how does it work now? URL: /

12. If cars developed like computers. URL: 

13. Viber R. Empirical laws of the network economy. URL:

14. Arutyunova G.I. Microeconomics in questions, tests, tasks and case problems, situations, Internet tasks / G.I. Arutyunova, A.A. Sultygova. Moscow, 2014.

Problems of gas, LNG, coal and RES supply in Europe until 2030

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.69-78

The situation with unstable gas supply and energy supply in the EU has become more complicated in connection with the start of the military special operation of the Russian Federation in Ukraine, which has dramatically changed the situation with the energy supply in Europe. The EU predicts to reduce the consumption of Russian gas, while experiencing a shortage of gas.

Germany could use Nord Stream 2 gas, as former German Chancellor Gerhard Schroeder called for in early August this year after his visit to Moscow. This step would solve Germany’s gas supply problems for a long period. However, the EU and Germany previously refused to use Nord Stream 2 for political reasons.

The situation changed radically when, on September 26, 2022, a sabotage was committed on the Nord Stream 1 and Nord Stream 2 gas pipelines, as a result of which sections of gas pipes were torn off near the island of Bornholm (Denmark). As a result, one billion m3 of gas flows out of the pipes. Repair of ruptured pipes can take several months. Europe will remain in autumn and winter without Russian gas.

LNG will not be able to replace Russian gas due to the limited number of points for its reception, as well as the rise in the cost of LNG by 20-30% compared to pipeline Russian gas. In addition, until 2030, EU LNG imports will be limited due to insufficient LNG production capacities in the US and the world, as well as Asian countries’ competition in LNG consumption.


1. Bloomfield H.C., Brayshaw D.J., Troccoli A., Goodess C.M., De Felice M., Dubus L., Bett P.E., Saint-Drenan Y.-M. Quantifying the sensitivity of european power systems to energy scenarios and climate change projections, Renewable Energy, Volume 164, February 2021. pp. 1062-1075.

2. Frank Ch., Fiedler S., Crewell S. Balancing potential of natural variability and extremes in photovoltaic and wind energy production for European countries, Renewable Energy, Volume 163, January 2021. pp. 674-684.

3. Wang S., Tarroja B., Schell L., Samuelsen S. Determining cost-optimal approaches for managing excess renewable electricity in decarbonized electricity systems, Renewable Energy, Volume 178, November 2021. pp. 1187-1197.

4. Umerenkov E. There is gas, but not for you. URL:

5. Tikhonov S. Lost in prohibitions // Rossiyskaya Gazeta. August 11, 2022. P. 5. (In Russ.).

6. Alifirova E. New IEA forecast. URL:

7. International Energy Agency (IEA) Quarterly Gas Market Report, July 5, 2022 (Gas Market Report, Q2-2022 including Global Gas Review 2021). URL:

8. Smil V. The use of fossil fuels has increased by 20% since the beginning of the century // Vedomosti. June 02, 2022. (In Russ.).

9. Kuzovkin A.I. Climate, the role of fuel and renewable energy sources. Microeconomics. 2022;3:28-37. (In Russ.).

Digital import substitution in the nuclear industry

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.79-86

Import substitution as a factor in the growth of domestic production in 2022 is again a relevant process, firstly, due to the consequences of geopolitical tensions, which entailed, among other things, the outflow of personnel, and secondly, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, which resulted in destruction of established logistics links and supply chains.

The article analyzes the process of import substitution on the example of the largest Russian generating company in the nuclear industry – the State Corporation «Rosatom».


1. Import substitution in Russia in 2022 – latest news // Legal newspaper. May 15, 2022 URL:

2. Rosatom announced the launch of the Logos Teplo digital product // Atomic Energy 2.0. URL:

3. A domestic software and hardware complex for creating a VDI infrastructure has appeared in Russia // CNews. URL:

4. Rosatom as an engine of domestic IT import substitution // Digital Energy. URL:

5. Rosatom completely switches to Astra Linux // CNews. May 19, 2022 URL:

6. How Rosatom has become the engine of domestic IT import substitution // СNEWS. December 28, 2020 URL:

7. Faikov D.Yu. Assessing the Opportunities and Prospects for Diversifying the Activities of State Corporations in the Framework of Modern Organizational and Technological Trends (on the Example of the Nuclear Industry) // MIR. 2020;11(2): 179-195. (In Russ.).

8. «Logos»: a course towards import substitution in the StrAU segment // CAD. 2021. No. 10. URL:

9. RFNC-VNIIEF: Logos software package // TADVISER. URL: package?cache=no&ptype=integr

10. Quality management systems. ISO 9000:2015 // ISO consulting. URL:

11. Zinder E.Z. What is «IT efficiency» // Intelligent Enterprise. 2006;8.

12. Development of digital modeling of management decisions in strategic planning: Monograph / Ed. ed. Doctor of Economics, prof. V.A. Tupchienko. Moscow: Scientific Consultant Publishing House, 2022. 408 p.

13. Report on the results of the expert-analytical event «Monitoring and evaluation of the effectiveness of import substitution measures in terms of procurement of software for state and municipal needs over the past period of 2018» // Accounts Chamber of the Russian Federation. URL:

Communicative interactions of suppliers of energy resources in the Arctic territories on the basis of digitalization

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.87-99

The article presents a case study of a big company operating in the Russian Arctic Zone in order to explain the need for digitalisation of communication between energy resource suppliers and customer markets. Currently, the main way of communication between the energy supplier in question and its customer markets is contractual relations. Their timeliness and quality are becoming particularly important, especially for big businesses. The quality of a resource supply contract directly affects the completeness of the resource supply and performance of the schedule agreed in the contract. Contract performance directly influences the financial and economic per-formance of the company and, consequently, its competitiveness on customer markets. A contract as a main communication tool is the critical legal instrument, regardless of the annual number and scope of contracts. It applies to various contracts, from several big orders for companies (enterprises) on sectoral customer markets to tens of thousands on a consumer market reaching individuals and households.


1. Babkin N., Bespalova S., Senetskaya L., Skotarenko O. Tools for digitalization of economic processes for supporting management decision-making in the Arctic region. 4th International Scientific Conference on Arctic: History and Modernity; Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation 17-18 April 2019.

2.   Babkina L.N., Skotarenko O.V. Features of the qualimetric approach in regional studies // Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. Economic sciences. 2013;5(180):161-165. (In Russ.).

3.   Bodrunov S, Plotnikov V, Vertakova Y. Technological Development as a Factor of Ensuring the National Security, Proceedings of the 30th International Business Information Management Association Conference — Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth, Madrid. 2017. 8-9 November 2017. pp.66-74.

4.   Kelchevskaya N., Shirinkina E. Regional determinants of effective use of human capital in the digital economy. Economy of Region. 2019;2:465-482.

5.   On national development goals and strategic tasks of the Russian Federation until 2024: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 7 May 2018 (ver. of 19.07.2018), Collected Laws of the RF, 20 (14.05.2018) Art. 2817.

6.   On the Strategy for Scientific and Technical Development of the Russian Federation: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 1 December 2016 № 642, Collected Laws of the RF, 49 (05.12.2016) Art. 6887.

7.   On assigning the default supplier status: Order of the Russian Ministry for Energy of 23 January 2015. №14, not published.

8.   Pasandideh H., Taghi S., Niaki A., Mousav S. Two metaheuristics to solve a multiitem multiperiod inventory control problem under storage constraint and discounts. Economica. 2013.

9.   Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2020. Official website of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. URL:

The underwriting method as a tool for analyzing the demand for services (on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan)

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.100-104

The scientific article presents the trends in the development of services based on the applications of popular search queries of potential consumers, which allow analyzing the demand for trends in goods (services) using the example of the Republic of Tatarstan.


1. Novikov A.V., Slabskaya D.N. Underwriting: international practice // Questions of Russian international law. 2021;11(2A):40-46. (In Russ.).

2. Shinkevich M.V. Specifics of the study of the competitive advantages of the service sector market at the mesoeconomic level: theory and practice. / M.V. Shinkevich, I.V. Zhukovskaya // Microeconomics. 2019;2:38-43. (In Russ.).

3. Klishina Yu.E., Uglitskikh O.N., Volodina A.V. The use of underwriting technology in insurance // Innovative economy: prospects for development and improvement. 2021;5(55):74-78. (In Russ.).

4. Zhukovskaya I.V. Segmentation of the service market: problems, solutions // Microeconomics. 2021;2:32-37. (In Russ.).

5. Ragimkhanov A.V. Systematization of scientific approaches to the study of the competitiveness of services: from theory to practice. / A.V. Ragimkhanov, I.V. Zhukovskaya // Microeconomics. 2022;1:75-78. (In Russ.).

6. Rostourism website //

Features of the study of the competitiveness of the service sector on the example of the Republic of Tatarstan

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.105-109

The scientific article proposes directions for supporting the competitiveness of the service sector on the example of the tourism industry of the Republic of Tatarstan. The formation of the regional tourist and volunteer center is substantiated, which allows expanding additional types of regional domestic tourism and accumulating a control center at the point of the most demanded and visited geographically, which accumulates information and digital support with the help of volunteers.


1. Safina G.M., Gadzhiev Z.G., Dominova L.R. Risk tolerance of Russian service organizations in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic // in the collection: Comprehensive development of territorial systems and improving the efficiency of regional management in the context of digitalization of the economy. Materials of the III National (All-Russian) scientific-practical conference. Eagle, 2021. pp. 194-200. (In Russ.).

2. Rzaitdinov R.R. Ways to improve competitiveness in the service sector (on the example of a network of service centers for the repair of equipment) // Studies of young scientists: materials of the XX Intern. scientific conf. Kazan: Young scientist, 2021. pp. 33-36. (In Russ.). URL:

3. Zhukovskaya I.V. Segmentation of the service market: problems, solutions // Microeconomics. 2021;2:32-37. (In Russ.).

4. Zhukovskaya I.V. Differentiation of competitiveness management methods on the example of the service market of services // Microeconomics. 2021;3:32-38. (In Russ.).

5. Ragimkhanov A.V. Systematization of scientific approaches to the study of the competitiveness of services: from theory to practice / A.V. Ragimkhanov, I.V. Zhukovskaya // Microeconomics. 2022;1:75-78. (In Russ.).

On the issue of collusion in the food market

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.110-115

This article provides a detailed analysis of the definitions of the concepts of conversations and identifies its characteristic features. The authors determined that collusion is a secret illegal agreement, which is aimed at limiting competition in order to maximize their own income. Also considered are such forms of manifestation of collusion between the customer, suppliers and competitors as “ramming”, passive participation or refusal to participate in the tender, submission of an uncompetitive proposal, vertical and horizontal collusion. The modern manifestations of collusion with the use of auction robots and measures to counter their use are disclosed. The characteristic signs of collusion between the customer and the supplier of goods that contribute to its identification are identified and presented. It also defines the role of the Federal Antimonopoly Service in countering collusion in the food market.


1. Dahl V. Explanatory Dictionary of the Living Great Russian Language: in 4 volumes. M., 1989-1991. T. 4. (In Russ.).

2. Esipov V.E. Prices and pricing: A textbook for universities. 3rd ed. St. Petersburg: Publishing house «Piter», 1999. 161 p. (In Russ.).

3. Ivanova E.S. Evolution of the development of price collusion: legal and economic aspects // Izvestiya FEFU. Economics and Management. 2019:2;5-21. (In Russ.).

4. Kinev A.Yu. The fight against bid rigging is a way to reduce state costs // Lawyer. 2016:1;14-19. (In Russ.).

5. Kononov S. Tender collusion. How to understand that the auction is fair and not waste time in vain. URL:

6. Kutsenko V.E. Price collusion // Innovative science. 2017:1-1:128-130. (In Russ.).

7. Lozovsky L.Sh. Universal business dictionary. / L.Sh. Lozovsky, B.A. Raizberg, A.A. Ratnovsky. M.: INFRA-M, 1999. 640 p. (In Russ.).

8. Malyutina O.A. Bid rigging: legal aspects of counteraction // Bulletin of the Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia. 2016:4 (36);122-127. (In Russ.).

9. Raizberg B.A. Modern Economic Dictionary 2nd ed., Corrected. / B.A. Raizberg, L.Sh. Lozovsky, E.B. Starodubtseva. M.: INFRA-M, 1999. 479 p.

10. Smith A. Research on the nature and causes of the wealth of nations; [per. from English. P. Klyukina]. Moscow: Eksmo, 2022. 1056 p.

11. Telkov A.V. Some aspects of the protection of national projects through operational-search activity // Bulletin of the Tula State University. Economic and legal sciences. 2021:3;117-125. (In Russ.).

12. Ushakov D.N. Explanatory Dictionary. URL:

13. Finam Financial Dictionary. URL:

Using the Hierarchy Analysis Method in state strategic planning

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.5-25

The purpose of this work is to prepare proposals for the further development and practical use in the Russian Federation of the methodology and tools of program-targeted management. The following issues are resolved in the article: 1) as a result of the analysis of domestic and foreign scientific sources, as well as regulatory documents of the Russian Federation in the field of strategic planning, its main shortcomings are identified and the main directions for further development are formulated; 2) a methodical approach is proposed for the development of state programs for the economic and social development of the country based on the method of analysis of hierarchies; 3) an example of the practical use of this method for solving the problem of substantiating the optimal size of import substitution of foreign components for the production of a short-haul narrow-body passenger aircraft Super Jet 100 is given.



1. Indicative planning and implementation of regional policy / ed. A.B. Levinthal. M.: Finance and statistics, 2007. 326 p. (In Russ.).

2. Demidova L.G., Klimov S.M., Shcherbakovsky G.Z., Antonov A.G. Indicative planning: theory and ways of improvement. St. Petersburg: Knowledge, 2000. 230 p. (In Russ.).

3. Afonina I.A., Ivanova O.D., Panasevich O.E. About the conference “Strategic planning in the face of increasing external threats: the need to mobilize internal resources for the development of Russia” //Microeconomics. 2014;6:138-144. (In Russ.).

4. Buzgalin A. V., Kolganov A. I. Revival of planning, lessons (political and economic discourse // Problems of the theory of management practice. 2016;1:8-18. (In Russ.).

5. Buchwald E.M. Strategic unfinished construction; is the result visible? // STAGE. Economic theory, analysis, practice. 2017;6:33-47. (In Russ.).

6. Gaganov A.A. Does Russia have strategic planning? URL: http: rusrand. ru/analytics/est-li-v-rossii-strategicheskoe-planirovanie

7. Mishin Yu.V., Pisareva O.M., Mishin A.Yu., Alekseev V.A. Normative base of strategic planning: fundamentals, unresolved problems and directions of development. Monograph. Moscow: Nauka Publishing House, 2019. 404 p. (In Russ.).

8. Smirnova O.O. Paradigms and parallels. On the paradigm shift of a unipolar world in strategic planning // MIR (Modernization. Innovations. Development. 2014;3(19):107-110. (In Russ.).

9. Saaty T.L. Making decisions. Method of analysis of hierarchies. Moscow: Radio and communication, 1993. 241 p. (In Russ.).

10. Saaty T., Kerns K. Analytical planning. Organization of systems. M: Radio and communication, 1991. 224 p. (In Russ.).

11. Kartvelishvili V.M., Lebedyuk E.A. Hierarchy Analysis Method: Criteria and Practice. Bulletin of the Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. 2013;6:1-16. (In Russ.).

12. Romanov V.N. System analysis for engineers. St. Petersburg: SZGZTU, 2006. 186 p. (In Russ.).

13. Beshelev S.D., Gurvich F.G. Expert assessments. M.: Nauka, 1973. 158 p. (In Russ.).