Oorfene Deuce’s Mistake, or Some Remarks on Country Image

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.28-35

In the proposed material, the author draws attention to the fact that in the conditions of recent forced reputational losses for Russia, the problem of forming an attractive national image becomes extremely relevant. The author examines the position of Russia in the field of national image in comparison with a number of foreign states. Based on the approaches of the theoretical founder and leader of country branding, S. Anholt, the author reviews the state of affairs in various spheres of Russian life, and concludes that the most promising areas for the formation of a new positive image of Russia are the sphere of culture and the tourism industry.

Источники:

1. Nye J. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York, Basic Books, 1990.

2. Nye J. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York, Public Affairs Group, 2004.

3. Russkie v Amerike. Kniga sudeb [Russians in America. Book of Fates].Comp. V. Levin. Minsk, Smolensk, 1996, p. 190.

4. Kotler Ph., Haider D.H., Rein I.J. Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations. Free Press, 1993.

5. Ward S.V., Ward S. Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities. 1850–2000. Taylor & Francis, 1998.

6. Anholt S. Places: Identity, Image and Reputation. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

7. Germany maintains top “nation brand” ranking, Canada and Japan overtake the UK to round out the top three. Ipsos, available at: https://www.ipsos.com/en/nation-brands-index-2021.

8. The Good Country Index, available at: https://index.goodcountry.org/

9. The Good Country Equation: How We Can Repair the World in One Generation. Berrett-Koehler, 2020.

10. Saimon Ankhol’t: Problema Rossii v tom, chto ee schitayut obuzoi [Simon Anholt: Russia’s Problem is That it is Considered a Burden]. SNOB, available at: https://snob.ru/selected/entry/56182/

11. Otchet o rezul’tatakh ekspertno-analiticheskogo meropriyatiya “Opredelenie osnovnykh prichin, sderzhivayushchikh nauchnoe razvitie v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: otsenka nauchnoi infrastruktury, dostatochnost’ motivatsionnykh mer, obespechenie privlekatel’nosti raboty vedushchikh uchenykh” [Report on Results of the Expert-analytical Event “Identification of the Main Reasons Hindering Scientific Development in the Russian Federation: Assessment of the Scientific Infrastructure, Sufficiency of Motivational Measures, Provision of Attractiveness of the Leading Scientists’ Work”]. FGOSVO, available at:  https://fgosvo.ru/uploadfiles/Work_materials_disscusion/sp.pdf.

12. Muzychuk V.Yu. Finansirovanie kul’tury v Rossii: shag vpered i dva nazad [Financing Culture in Russia: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back]. Zhurnal NEA, 2019, no 1(41), pp. 208–215.

13. Governance Index: World Map. SOLABILITY, available at: https://solability.com/the-global-sustainable-competitiveness-index/the-index/governance-capital.

14. Reiting turisticheskikh stran [Rating of Tourist Countries]. TouristicLog, available at: http://www.alexeytour.ru/strany_mira_tour-rating.html.

On Sanctions and the Exchange Rate

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.17-21

The article emphasizes that freezing of Russian gold and foreign exchange reserves was previously accurately predicted by Russian experts. Attention is drawn to the fact that weakening of the ruble was one of the goals of the sanctions impact on the Russian economy that Western countries were bearing in mind. It is obvious that the exact opposite — preventing its depreciation and turning the ruble into a stable strong currency — is an anti-sanction measure. With high dependence of the Russian economy on imports, as well as in the situation when it is necessary to find alternative ways for imports (primarily for investment), which will lead to their higher prices with corresponding consequences, an excessive exchange rate depreciation may adversely affect economic development, especially in a long term. In addition, extremely important is ensuring stability of the exchange rate. It is concluded that stable and non-depreciating ruble will form the basis for consistent development of business and expand the possibilities for using the ruble in foreign trade settlements as well. It is particularly relevant in the context of restrictions on the use of leading currencies in foreign trade.

Источники:

 

1. Ershov M.V. Sanktsii protiv RF: mekhanizmy neitralizatsii [Sanctions Against the Russian Federation: Neutralization Mechanisms]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2017, no 7, pp. 46–51.

2. Baiden ogovorilsya, zayaviv, chto dollar stoit 200 rublei [Biden Made a Slip of the Tongue Saying That the Dollar is Worth 200 Rubles]. RIA Novosti, 2022, March, 26, available at: https://ria.ru/20220326/bayden-1780271172.html.

3. Sanktsii SShA protiv TsB i Minfina perekroyut dostup k rezervam dlya podderzhki rublya [US Sanctions Against the Central Bank and the Ministry of Finance will Block Access to Reserves for Supporting the Ruble]. Interfaks, 2022, February, 28, available at: https://www.interfax.ru/business/825191.

4. Bank Rossii. O chem govoryat trendy [Bank of Russia. What are the Trends Saying?]. BCS Express, 2022, April, 22, available at: https://bcs-express.ru/novosti-i-analitika/bank-rossii-o-chem-govoriat-trendy.

5. SMI: EK zayavila, chto ukaz ob oplate gaza v rublyakh narushaet sanktsii ES [Media: EC Said That the Decree on Gas Payments in Rubles Violates EU Sanctions]. RIA Novosti, 2022, April, 14, available at: https://ria.ru/20220414/gaz-1783434893.html.

6. Russia’s ruble is the strongest currency in the world this year. CBS NEWS, 2022, May, 27, available at: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/russia-rublecurrency-2022/

7. Ershov M.V. Valyutnaya politika kak faktor natsional’noi bezopasnosti [Monetary Policy as National Security Factor]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2015, no 4, pp. 20–29.

8. Washington Times. 2015, April, 30.

9. Ershov M.V. Ekonomicheskii suverenitet Rossii v global’noi ekonomike [Russia’s Economic Sovereignty in the Global Economy]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 2005, 280 p.

10. BIS. Quarterly Review. International banking and financial market developments. June 2022.

Modeling the Consequences of a Nuclear Strike

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.6-16

The risks of increasing international tension have sharply exacerbated the possibility of a nuclear conflict. The main geopolitical players in the international arena have actually recognized the possibility and even expediency of using nuclear weapons. In this context, the need to simulate the consequences of a nuclear strike in order to prepare for emergencies of a critical nature has become extremely urgent. The present article analyzes foreign experience of using digital simulators to this end. The authors outline Russian views on applying agent-based simulation methods for this purpose in the analysis of non-military (civilian) aspects of a nuclear blow effects.

Источники:

 

1. Grabchak E.P., Loginov E.L. Podgotovka sistemy gosudarstvennogo upravleniya Rossii k sverkhkriticheskim situatsiyam prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo kharaktera [Preparing the Public Administration System of Russia for Supercritical Situations of Natural and Man-made Nature]. Problemy upravleniya bezopasnost’yu slozhnykh sistem: Materialy XXIX Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Moskva, 15 dekabrya 2021 g. [Problems of Safety Management of Complex Systems: Proceedings of the XXIX International Scientific-practical Conference. Moscow, December 15, 2021]. Moscow, Institut problem upravleniya im. V.A. Trapeznikova RAN, pp. 99–103.

2. Ageev A.I., Bochkarev O.I., Grabchak E.P., Loginov E.L. Setetsentricheskaya sistema povyshennoi zhivuchesti upravleniya energetikoi Rossii v slozhnoprognoziruemykh kriticheskikh usloviyakh [Net-Centric System of Elevated Survivability of Energy Management in Russia Under Difficult-to-predict Critical Conditions]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, vol. 23, no 3 (177), pp. 6–17, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.177.2021.6-17.

3. Moiseev N.N., Aleksandrov V.V., Tarko A.M. Chelovek i biosfera: Opyt sistemnogo analiza i eksperimenty s modelyami [Man and the Biosphere: The Experience of System Analysis and Experiments with Models]. Moscow, Nauka, 1985, 271 p.

4. Yadernaya zima i ee komp’yuternoe modelirovanie v 80-kh [Nuclear Winter and Its Computer Simulation in the 80s]. Khabr, 2022, May, 28, available at: https://habr.com/ru/company/ruvds/blog/668256/

5. Turco R.P., Toon O.B., Ackerman T.P., Pollack J.B., Sagan C. Nuclear winter: Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions, 1984.

6. Kokoshin A.A., Arbatov A.G., Vasil’ev A.A. Yadernoe oruzhie i strategicheskaya stabil’nost’ (stat’ya pervaya) [Nuclear Weapons and Strategic Stability (Article One)]. SShA: Ekonomika, politika, ideologiya, 1987, no 9, p. 3.

7. John M. Gates. The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. The College of Wooster Wooster, Ohio, available at: https://discover.wooster.edu/jgates/files/2011/11/fullbook.pdf.

8. Starr S. Deadly Climate Change From Nuclear War: A threat to human existence, available at: https://www.armscontrol.ru/pubs/en/deadly-climate-changefromnuclear-war.pdf.

9. Velikhov E., Kokoshin A. Yadernoe oruzhie i dilemmy mezhdunarodnoi bezopasnosti [Nuclear Weapons and International Security Dilemmas]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1985, no 4, p. 20.

Modeling Depopulation Trends in the Community of Countries with Different Economic Development Levels

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.26-37

In this paper, an attempt is made to develop a mathematical model of population growth, based on socio-economic factors of the development of the countries’ community, as well as population migration. The author presents intermediate results of his review where he studies economic community, characterized by a very uneven development of regions. Mathematical model is proposed in which a conditional “center” and “periphery” (“global city” and “world village”) are distinguished. From the analysis of the existing socio-economic conditions of development it follows that “periphery” traditionally acts as a demographic donor for the “center”. Examples of such systems include, in particular, relations of the EU-Baltic republics, the EU-Ukraine, and Russia–EAEU countries. As an explanatory principle, it is proposed to use the concept of “institutional trap”. From the mathematical model point of view, this means rigidly fixed coefficients of connection between the system elements implementing one-way connection (toward the “center”). Possible mechanisms, influencing the dynamics of the system through adopting appropriate managerial decisions, are discussed. Obtained results prove the importance of adequate mathematical models for optimizing the strategic management of society.

Источники:

1. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 1 dekabrya 2016 g. N 642 “O Strategii nauchno-tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Executive Order of the President of the Russian Federation dated December 1, 2016 No. 642 “On the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation”]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41449.

2. Complex Systems and Society — Modeling and Simulation. Springer, 2013, available at:  https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4614-7242-1.

3. Solozhentsev E.D. Tsifrovoe upravlenie gosudarstvom i ekonomikoi [Digital Management of the State and Economy]. Upravlenie i planirovanie v ekonomike, 2018, no 1(17), pp. 136–153.

4. Federal’nyi zakon ot 28 iyunya 2014 g. N 172-FZ “O strategicheskom planirovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Federal Law of June 28, 2014 No. 172-FZ “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/38630.

5. Eberlin M. Foresight: How the Chemistry of Life Reveals Planning and Purpose. Discovery Institute, 2019.

6. Gaponenko N.V. Forsait. Teoriya. Metodologiya. Opyt [Foresight. Theory. Methodology. Experience]. Monografiya. Moscow, Yuniti — Danab, 2008, 239 p.

7. Unido Technology Foresight Manual. United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna, 2005, vol. 1, p. 8.

8. Pereslegin S.B. Budushchee kak proekt: krizis futurologii [The Future as a Project: Crisis of Futurology]. Intellekt, voobrazhenie, intuitsiya: razmyshleniya o gorizontakh soznaniya (metafizicheskii i psikhologicheskii opyt). Saint-Petersburg, 2001, no 10.

The Avant-Guarde Stratification of Nations

DOI: 10.33917/es-3.183.2022.16-25

In modern economic thinking, there is an unclear division of the population into rich, poor and middle class. This structuring originated in the time of Euripides and Aristotle. However, there is still no general method for determining the parameters of the middle class, although the dynamics of growth and development of national economies significantly depends on it. The author proposes to stratify the population by the criterion of GDP per capita, calculated by purchasing power parity. At the same time, the author determines the parameters of the avant-garde, middle and rear-guard strata of the nation on the route of economic development using the proposed development gamma scale.

Источники:

1. Global Wealth Report 2015, Credit Suisse: Table 1. Middle-class share of all adults. Credit Suisse. P. 32. URL: global-wealth-report-2015.pdf.

2. Putin V.V. O srednem klasse i dokhodakh naseleniya: Interv’yu TASS. 18 marta 2020 g. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://www.kremlin.runts/president/news/63007.

3. Ponomarev V. Antropologicheskaya politekonomiya: kontseptsiya teorii samorazvitiya [Anthropological Political Economy: the Concept of Self-Development Theory]. Saarbryuken, LAP, 2013, 60 p.

4. Ponomarev V.P. Polimorfnaya gamma-shkala razvitiya geoekonomiki [Polymorphic Gamma-Scale of Economic Development]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2022, no 1, pp. 106–111, DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.106-111.

5. Evripid. Umolyayushchie: Tragedii [Pleading: Tragedies]. Vol. 1. Literaturnye pamyatniki [Literary memorials]. Moscow, Nauka, Ladomir, 1999.

6. Rossiiskii statisticheskii ezhegodnik. 2019 [Russian Statistical Yearbook. 2019]. Moscow, Rosstat, 2019, p. 163.

Responding to the Global Challenges of the Club of Rome: from “Limits to Growth” to “Sustainable Development”. To the Half-Century Anniversary of the First Report to the Club

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.52-65

The famous first report to the Club of Rome “The Limits то Growth” not only revealed strategic negative tendencies in the relationship of modern civilization with the natural environment, but also proposed a theoretical direction for overcoming them — “dynamic global equilibrium” (“zero growth”). The modern strategy of sustainable development is considered as a constructive response of civilization to the challenges of the realities of the “limits of growth” on the way of its advancement into the foreseeable future

Источники:

 

1. Мeadows Donnella H., Randers Jorgen, Meadows Dennis L., William W. Behrens. The Limits to Growth: A Report for the Club of Rome’s Project on the Predicament of Mankind. Universe Books, 1972, 211 p.

2. Forrester Dzh. Mirovaya dinamika [World Dynamics]. Moscow, Nauka, 1978, 167 p.

3. Pechchei A. Zapiski Rimskogo kluba [Notes of the Club of Rome]. Moscow, 2019, 240 p.

4. Mankind at the Turning Point. The Сlub of Rome, 1974.

5. Medouz D.Kh., Medouz D.L., Randers I. Za predelami rosta: Predotvratit’ global’nuyu katastrofu. Obespechit’ ustoichivoe budushchee [Beyond Growth: Averting a Global Catastrophe. Ensure a Sustainable Future]. Moscow, Progress, Pangeya, 1994, 303 p.

6. Medouz D.Kh., Randers I., Medouz D. Predely rosta: 30 let spustya [Limits to Growth: 30 Years Later]. Moscow, Binom, Laboratoriya znanii, 2013, 357 p.

7. Nauke predstoit reshat’ problemy, a ne otkryvat’ novye gorizonty [Science has to Solve Problems, Not Open New Horizons]. Gazeta.gu, 2011, May, 2, available at: https://www.gazeta.ru/science/2012/05/02_a_4569465.shtml.

8. Dubovskii S.V. Putevoditel’ po global’nomu modelirovaniyu [Global Modeling Guide]. Obshchestvennye nauki i sovremennost’, 1998, no 3, pp. 161–171.

9. Egorov V.A., Kallistov Yu.N., Mitrofanov V.B., Piontkovskii A.A. Matematicheskie metody global’nogo razvitiya [Mathematical Methods of Global Development]. Leningrad, Gidrometeoizdat, 1980, 192 p.

10. Efimov G.B., Efimova M.V., Egorov V.A. Pervye raboty po global’nomu modelirovaniyu v IPM i voprosy ekologii idei i nravov obshchestva [First Works on Global Modeling at IPM and Ecology of Ideas and Morals of Society]. Preprinty IPM im. M.V. Keldysha, 2019, no 45, 26 p.

11. Hawrylyshyn B. Road maps to the future — towards more effective societies. The Сlub of Rome, 1980.

12. Dubovskii S.V. Global’noe modelirovanie: Voprosy teorii i praktiki [Global Modeling: Issues of Theory and Practice]. Vek globalizatsii, 2010, no 2.

13. Gelovani V.A., Britkov V.B., Dubovskii S.V. SSSR i Rossiya v global’noi sisteme (1985–2030): Rezul’taty global’nogo modelirovaniya [USSR and Russia in the Global System (1985–2030): Results of Global Modeling]. Moscow, URSS, 2017, 320 p.

14. Medouz D., et al. Predely rosta [Limits to Growth]. Moscow, Izd-vo MGU, 1991, 208 p.

15. Chelovek i sreda ego obitaniya [Man and His Environment]. Voprosy filosofii, 1973, no 1–3.

The Economic Attack on Russia and the Policy of Counteraction

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.40-47

The purpose of the study is to show the patterns of the deployment of an economic attack on Russia. The research methodology is a comparative and retrospective analysis, elements of a structural approach. In the course of the analysis, a result was obtained that boils down to the fact that the current model of the world economy with a high level of integration and dependence of the economy poses a threat to the national security of the country. Economic warfare is carried out through damaging sanctions. Good conditions for it were created by the liberal economic policy pursued in Russia, which held back growth. Moreover, such outcomes are typical not only for economic activity, but also for the functioning of science and education — “invisible” sanctions, which creates a long-term perspective of dependent and driven development. It is necessary to ensure control over the distribution of property owners in the domestic market, planning procedures that are reduced to the establishment of thresholds in the field of imports, exports in various areas of activity, as well as the admission of foreign resources and institutional rules to the domestic market. With the implementation of such an institutional policy, sanctions would cause much less damage or their negative effect would be absent. Today, it is necessary to resist the economic attack by maximizing the withdrawal of assets from the dollar denomination, pursuing an anti-devaluation policy, cutting off the banking system from the speculative depreciation game, and intensifying efforts to replace imports in each industry. It is required to close the contours of production to the domestic market with the re-profiling of production, practicing the seizure of foreign property as a response to similar external actions. Such actions require a systematic state policy in all areas of coordination of industries and activities.

Источники:

 

1. Glaz’ev S.Yu. Bitva za lide rstvo v XXI veke. Rossiya, SShA, Kitai. Sem’ variantov blizhaishego budushchego [The Battle for Leadership in the XXI Century. Russia, USA, China. Seven Options for the Near Future]. Moscow, Knizhnyi mir, 2017, 352 p.

2. L’vov D.S. Ekonomika razvitiya [Development Economics]. Moscow, Ekzamen, 2002, 512 p.

3. Sukharev O.S. “Izvrashchennyi monetarism” budet diktovat’ ekonomicheskuyu strategiyu razvitiya Rossii? [“Perverted Monetarism” will Dictate the Economic Development Strategy of Russia?]. Investitsii v Rossii, 2017, no 6, pp. 27–35.

4. Krugman P. Depressii — eto nechto inoe [Depression is Something Else]. Ekonomika dlya lyuboznatel’nykh: o chem razmyshlyayut nobelevskie laureaty. Moscow, Izd-vo instituta Gaidara, 2017, pp. 26–27.

5. Sukharev O.S. Ekonomicheskie sanktsii: problema otsenki ushcherba [Economic Sanctions: the Problem of Damage Assessment]. Ekonomika i predprinimatel’stvo, 2017, no 8-4, vol. 11, pp. 80–87.

6. Anchishkin A.I. Prognozirovanie tempov i faktorov ekonomicheskogo rosta [Forecasting Rates and Factors of Economic Growth]. Moscow, Maks-Press, 2003, 300 p.

Major Factors of the Settlement of Migrants from Central Asian Countries in Siberia and the Far East

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.118-125

With the Soviet Union’s collapse Russia became a recipient country for labour migrants from Central Asian countries. First of all, this is related to the fact that migration subsystem has been formed, based on socio-economic relations between the countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as to geographic proximity; secondly, there are more opportunities for migrants in Russia — there is the lack of jobs in their countries, low wages and therefore migrants move to Russia mainly in search of a better life. In this article, the authors examine the settlement dynamics of migrants from Central Asian countries in the Siberian Federal District and in the Far Eastern Federal District. The main factors that influence the resettlement of migrants in these territories were identified. As a result of the study, it was revealed that these two federal districts are quite attractive for migrants from the mentioned countries, despite rather severe climate, since in case of the Central Asian countries the socio-economic factor prevails over the natural-climatic one.

Источники:

1. Otchet o nauchno-issledovatel’skoi rabote “Printsipy formirovaniya Ekaterinburgskoi aglomeratsii”: Etap 2 “Podgotovka proektnykh predlozhenii po formirovaniyu Ekaterinburgskoi aglomeratsii” [Report on the “Principles of Forming the Yekaterinburg Agglomeration” Research Work: Stage 2 “Preparation of Project Proposals for the Formation of the Yekaterinburg Agglomeration”]. Ministerstvo stroitel’stva i razvitiya infrastruktury Sverdlovskoi oblasti, available at: https://minstroy.midural.ru/article/show/id/1185.

2. Ryazantsev S.V. Rol’ trudovoi migratsii v razvitii ekonomiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Role of Labour Migration in the Development of the Russian Federation’s Economy]. RefWorld, available at: https://www.refworld.org.ru/docid/58875fb04.html.

3. Shafranov-Kutsev G.F. Sotsial’no-demograficheskie problemy osvoeniya Sibiri [Socio-demographic Problems of Siberian Exploration]. Siberian Socium, 2017, no. 1, pp. 13–24, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.21684/2587-8484-2017-1-1-9-17

4. Rasporyazhenie Pravitel’stva RF ot 27 maya 2013 g. N 848-r “Perechen’ territorii prioritetnogo zaseleniya” (vstupilo v silu s 1 yanvarya 2014 g.) [Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of May 27, 2013 No. 848-r “List of Priority Settlement Areas” (Came into Force on January 1, 2014)]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Pravitel’stva RF, available at: http://government.ru/docs/2130/

5. Migratsionnye protsessy v Sibiri: narody, kul’tury, gosudarstvennaya politika [Migration Processes in Siberia: Peoples, Cultures, State Policy]. Sb. nauch. trudov. Omsk: ITs KAN, 2018, 328 p.

6. V Primor’e zhdut na rabotu trudovykh migrantov [Primorye is Waiting for Labour Migrants to Work]. Sputnik Tadzhikistan, 2018, July, 19, available at: https://sptnkne.ws/scfu.

7. Federal’naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki, available at: https://rosstat.gov.ru/

The Cradle of Life will Become the “Pasture„ of “Unicorns„

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.112-117

The era of digital reorganisation will engender transformation of the world economy, largely determining the vector of civilizational development. Despite the losses of the 20th century, Russia, having the potential of fundamental science and resource self-sufficiency, is still among the few countries capable of leadership in changing conditions. Post-COVID economy has only accelerated the transformation process, generating thrust for the rapid growth of “unicorns”, mainly in the markets of platform and ecosystem solutions. Russia may become the “homeland” of such “unicorns”, and their scaling will provide the growing consumer market of Africa, which is a favourable territory for development and localization of scaling of science-intensive exports that can ensure the well-being of national economies.

Источники:

1. Mirovaya geografiya kompanii-edinorogov [Global Geography of Unicorn Companies]. Nauka, tekhnologii, innovatsii, 2021, September, 24, available at: https://issek.hse.ru/mirror/pubs/share/508603329.pdf.

2. United Nations e-Government Survey 2018. United Nations, 2018, available at: https://publicadministration.un.org/egovkb/Portals/egovkb/Documents/un/2018-Survey/E-Government%20Survey%202018_FINAL%20for%20web.pdf.

3. Rossiya stala odnim iz mirovykh liderov po urovnyu proniknoveniya fintekh-uslug [Russia has Become One of the World Leaders in Terms of Fintech Services Penetration]. EY, available at: https://www.ey.com/ru_ru/news/2019/11/news-ey-fintech-survey-2019.

4. Pri Mishustine nalogovoe vedomstvo Rossii stalo odnim iz luchshikh v mire [Under Mishustin, the Tax Department of Russia has Become One of the Best in the World]. Federal’noe agentstvo novostei, available at: https://riafan.ru/1242831-pri-mishustine-nalogovoe-vedomstvo-rossii-stalo-odnim-iz-luchshikh-v-mire.

5. African Economic Outlook 2021. African Development Bank Group, available at: https://www.afdb.org/en/knowledge/publications/african-economic-outlook.

6. Sammit “Rossiya — Afrika” [Russia-Africa Summit]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/61893.

7. From magazine: African air cargo market bucks global trend. Logistics update Africa, available at: https://www.logupdateafrica.com/african-air-cargo-marketbucks-global-trend.

Polymorphic Gamma-Scale of Economic Development

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.106-111

The dynamic series of compound interest always contains transcendental numbers, which the author uses to construct the dual functions of polymorphic growth and development. These gamma functions quantize geoeconomic space and time in the form of historical stages of development. They also reveal dialectical pairs of gamma quanta of the core of civilization and lambda quanta of the leading countries. The author proposes a gamma scale for measuring the level of development of national economies.

Источники:

1. Ponomarev V. Antropologicheskaya politekonomiya: Kontseptsiya teorii samorazvitiya [Anthropological Political Economy: The Concept of the Theory of Self-Development]. Saarbryuken, LAP, 2013.

2. VVP na dushu naseleniya v 1990–2020 gg. (Vsemirnyi bank; PPS, doll.) [GDP per Capita 1990–2020]. SVSPB.net, available at: https://svspb.net/danmark/vvp-stran-na-dushu-naselenija-wb.php.