The authors have analyzed the legal acts regulating accountancy in the Russian Federation and concluded that they contain no definitions, classification or descriptions of innovations, which makes it problematic to put the corresponding provisions of State programs into practice. The authors suggest singling out “expenditure on innovation” as a separate object of accounting and define it as expenditure for the purpose of improving the quality of production, works and service as well as improving the organizational and management system. This new level of quality can be measured by means of the following indicators: physical properties, chemical composition, technical and economic indicators. In view of the fact that investments in innovation can be referred to as both fixed capital (intangible assets, constant assets) and working capital (elite seeds, young animals, innovative biological additives etc.), the authors suggest adding to entry 08 “Investments in fixed assets” sub-entry 9 “Creating or purchasing innovations as part of fixed capital” and sub-entry 10 “Creating or purchasing innovations as part of working capital”. In view of the fact that Cash flow statement reveals some important analytical information about investing, it would be advisable to add to “Cash flow from investing activities” line 4215 “Cash inflows from selling innovations” and line 4225 “Expenditures on purchasing, creating innovations”.