Organization of scientific and technological development in the period of command economy: achievements and shortcomings

DOI: 10.33917/mic-2.97.2021.5-13

The article briefly reviews the state of the scientific and technological complex of the USSR in the most favorable period of its economic development (late 1970s-early 1980s). There is shown the structure of the organization of scientific research and the application of findings in the industry. Attention is drawn both to the advantages of centralized planning of scientific and technological developments, and to its disadvantages, in particular, the lack of using methods of economic incentives, which led to a drop in the innovative activity of participants in the scientific and technological process from the development of the idea to its implementation.

Economics and innovations: dialectic of interdependence

DOI: 10.33917/mic-6.95.2020.62-77

The article attempts to analyze the impact of general economic situation in national economy of Russia on innovative industrial development. The impact of innovations to industrial production development has shown in the article. We can see stages of innovative development in current Russian economy. The reasons, which are constraining innovative activity, have considered. The government role in stimulating of innovations has analyzed. The presence of private and budgetary components has noted as a qualitative specificity of Russian economy today. We can see the conclusion about necessity of improvement of management organization system of innovative processes.

Analytical Accounting of Innovation Activities in the Agricultural Industry

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.118-124

The authors have analyzed the legal acts regulating accountancy in the Russian Federation and concluded that they contain no definitions, classification or descriptions of innovations, which makes it problematic to put the corresponding provisions of State programs into practice. The authors suggest singling out “expenditure on innovation” as a separate object of accounting and define it as expenditure for the purpose of improving the quality of production, works and service as well as improving the organizational and management system. This new level of quality can be measured by means of the following indicators: physical properties, chemical composition, technical and economic indicators. In view of the fact that investments in innovation can be referred to as both fixed capital (intangible assets, constant assets) and working capital (elite seeds, young animals, innovative biological additives etc.), the authors suggest adding to entry 08 “Investments in fixed assets” sub-entry 9 “Creating or purchasing innovations as part of fixed capital” and sub-entry 10 “Creating or purchasing innovations as part of working capital”. In view of the fact that Cash flow statement reveals some important analytical information about investing, it would be advisable to add to “Cash flow from investing activities” line 4215 “Cash inflows from selling innovations” and line 4225 “Expenditures on purchasing, creating innovations”.

Technique of the modified duration as a way of an estimation of efficiency of innovative projects in market economy

In the scientific article application of a method of a duration as most effective way of an estimation of innovative projects on an example regional industrial кластера with the base research centre of leading high schools of Republic Tatarstan is proved.

The systematization scientific approach to management competitiveness in sphere of the services: economic essence, criteria

DOI: 10.33917/mic-2.91.2020.29-37

In the scientific article scientific approaches to management of competitiveness in sphere of services in which frameworks classification signs of criteria of management are revealed by competitiveness are systematized, concepts of competitiveness and a competition of sphere of services are specified. On the basis of a substantiation of application of a method of the added cost of a share capital (share holder’s value added – SVA); a method of the economic added cost of Stewart (economic value added – EVA); a method of the added market cost (market value added – MVA) the rating estimation of an index of competitiveness GCI on an example Central and Privolzhsky Federal districts is made.

Theoretical and methodological aspects of research of an innovative infrastructure of region on the Republic Tatarstan example

In the scientific article the methodical toolkit of research of an innovative infrastructure on an example of the Republic Tatarstan which base component is the index of regional development of an innovative infrastructure of business on the basis of the added parametre of enterprise concentration is improved. By results of settlement values the -focused actions of mesolevel are offered.

Modelling Cyclical Development of Society

#2. Breakthrough Betting
Modelling Cyclical Development of Society

The article discusses various types of systems development cycles and their mechanisms. The paper presents development of socio-economic systems, describes periods of their dynamics, as well as sources of their formation and cycle stimulators in the form of innovations, values, needs with the dynamics of cycles speeding up. The combination of socio-economic and socio-cultural cycles in the spiritual life of society is described. A planetary model of society development is proposed. A variant of spiral-cyclical development of society in phases is formed.

Network Format in Managing Economic Development: European Macro-Regionalism

#8. Ideas Change the World
Network Format in Managing Economic Development: European Macro-Regionalism

The article dwells on a multi-level approach to managing development on the example of Europe of macro-regions — a set of macro-regional innovation ecosystems, characterised by project-network structure and collaborative mechanisms of cooperation. The authors describe specificity of EU macro-regional strategies as the tools for horizontal coordination of national economic policies and smearing of outdated hierarchical model of European integration. The paper highlights useful lessons of European macro-regionalism for Russia’s promotion of an integration project on the EAEU territory.

Experience of Managing Competitiveness in the Innovation Environment Using the Case of European Countries

#8. New Year’s Forces
Experience of Managing Competitiveness in the Innovation Environment Using the Case of European Countries

Competent management of competitiveness in the innovation environment provides economic entities with enormous opportunities for economic growth and development. In this article, the author has studied characteristic features of European countries’ innovative development in order to use foreign experience for working out recommendations in managing competitiveness of the national economy of the Republic of Belarus, in particular — machine building complex. As the objects of research the author has chosen such countries as Italy, France, the USA and Germany.

On the System Economics Basis Formation

#7. Foresight Boom
On the System Economics Basis Formation

Authors propose a new idea of the economic theory construction as a more systematic and reasonable. The authors divide the economics into five levels: nanoeconomics, microeconomics, mezoeconomics, macroeconomics and megaeconomics. Nanoeconomics is considered as economics of intellectual capital, intellectual property and innovations. Nanoeconomics is the systemic basis for all other economics, ensuing from it by meaning and substance. In the article there is noted the increasing significance of legal factor in modern economic theory and practice and, in particular, the IP law importance.