The "Economic Strategies" journal

2022 #3. 2022. Racing Without Looking Back

Scenario Analysis of the Fuel Company Competitiveness in the World Market of Tolerant Nuclear Fuel for NPPs


The article analyses the market of goods and services at the initial stage of nuclear fuel cycle. Particular attention is paid to nuclear fuel fabrication and the impact of new promising types of fuel (including tolerant) on domestic companies’ market positions. Based on scenario analysis, the authors show the possibility to partially offset export earnings in case of possible loss of the fabrication market share due to increasing sales in other key stages of the nuclear fuel cycle — uranium conversion and enrichment.


1. Increased Accident Tolerance of Fuels for Light Water Reactors. Workshop Proceedings OECD/NEA Headquarters Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 10–12 December 2012. NEA-OECD, 2013, 534 p.

2. State-of-the-Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident-Tolerant Fuels. NEA-OECD, 2018, 372 p.

3. Nikipelova N. Viewpoint: How ATF could shape the nuclear fuel market. World Nuclear News, available at:

4. Semenov E.V., Kharitonov V.V. Mikroekonomika povysheniya bezopasnosti AES na osnove tolerantnogo topliva [Microeconomics of NPP Safety Improvement Based on Tolerant Fuel]. Mikroekonomika, 2021, no 5, pp. 49–62.

5. Karpyuk L.A., Kuznetsov V.I., Maslov A.A. et al. Toplivo s khromovym pokrytiem obolochki tvela, ustoichivoe k avarii [Fuel with Chromium-Plated Fuel Element Cladding, Crash Resistant]. Atomnaya energiya, 2021, no 3, pp. 142–148.

6. Karpyuk L.A., Savchenko A.M., Leont’eva-Smirnova M.V. et al. Perspektivy primeneniya stal’nykh obolochek dlya tvelov reaktorov tipa VVER v ramkakh kontseptsii topliva, ustoichivogo k avariinym situatsiyam [Prospects for Applying Steel Cladding for Fuel Elements of VVER Type Reactors Within the Concept of Fuel Resistant to Emergency Situations]. Atomnaya energiya, 2020, no 4, pp. 203–207.

7. Karpyuk L.A., Lysikov A.V., Maslov A.A. et al. Perspektivnoe metallicheskoe uran-molibdenovoe toplivo, ustoichivoe k avariyam [Promising Metallic Uraniummolybdenum Fuel Resistant to Accidents]. Atomnaya energiya, 2021, no 3, pp. 148–152.

8. Karpyuk L.A., Novikov V.V., Kulakov G.V. et al. Splav 42KhNM i karbid kremniya kak material obolochek tvelov, ustoichivykh k avariyam [42KhNM Alloy and Silicon Carbide as a Material for Fuel Rod Cladding Resistant to Accidents]. Atomnaya energiya, 2021, no 4, pp. 211–215.

9. Kritskii V.G., Kalin B.A. Korroziya obolochek tvelov v zhiznennom tsikle TVS legkovodnykh reaktorov [Corrosion of Fuel Claddings in the Life Cycle of Fuel Assemblies in Light Water Reactors]. Moscow, NIYaU MIFI, 2020, 200 p.

10. Kharitonov V.V. Dinamika razvitiya yadernoi energetiki. Ekonomiko-analiticheskie model [Dynamics of Nuclear Power Development. Economic and Analytical Models]. NIYaU MIFI, 2014, 328 p.

11. Sinev M.N. Ekonomika yadernoi energetiki: Osnovy tekhnologii i ekonomiki proizvodstva yadernogo topliva. Ekonomika AES [Nuclear Power Economics: Fundamentals of Technology and Economics of Nuclear Fuel Production. NPP Economics]. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987. 480 s.

Rigorousness of the Hydrogen Strategy


The main criterion for classifying hydrogen is the amount of carbon emissions generated during its production. Since only green hydrogen, received from renewable energy sources (RES), can be considered a fuel with a minimal carbon footprint, the article examines the question of to what extent the hydrogen strategies of various countries may be regarded as decarbonized. A typological approach is applied and a framework is established to define the stringency of green hydrogen regulation in national hydrogen strategies based on three parameters: fossil fuel penalties, hydrogen certification and exceptional technology development. According to these parameters, countries are classified into groups depending on the degree of regulation severity. The problems, associated with increasing the strictness of regulation for hydrogen production both at the national and international levels, are identified.



1. Hydrogen from renewable power. Technology outlook for the energy transition. IRENA. 2018. URL:

2. Etapy sertifikatsii. 2022 [Certification Stages. 2022]. CERTIFHY. URL:

3. Indiya obnarodovala svoyu vodorodnuyu politiku [India has Unveiled Its Hydrogen Policy]. RenEn, 2022, available at:

4. Garcia-Herrero A., Tagliapietra S., Vorsatz V. Hydrogen development strategies: a global perspective. Bruegel, 2021, available at:

5. Chili planiruet voiti v troiku krupneishikh eksporterov zelenogo vodoroda — strategiya [Chile Plans to Become One of the Top Three Exporters of Green Hydrogen — Strategy]. RenEn, 2020, available at:

6. Opublikovana vodorodnaya strategiya Norvegii [Norway has Published Its Hydrogen Strategy]. RenEn, 2020, available at:

7. Ministry of Power notifies Green Hydrogen / Green Ammonia Policy. Press Information Bureau Government of India, 2020, available at:

8. The Norwegian Government’s hydrogen strategy. Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, 2020, available at:

9. OAE ob”yavili o dorozhnoi karte vodorodnogo liderstva, ukreplyaya priverzhennost’ strany k sozdaniyu ekonomicheskikh vozmozhnostei posredstvom reshitel’nykh deistvii v oblasti klimata [UAE Announced Hydrogen Leadership Roadmap, Confirming Country’s Commitment to Creating Economic Opportunities Through Decisive Climate Action]. Emirates News Agency — WAM, 2021, available at:

“I Immediately Blurred the Map of Everyday Life”, or the Recent Situation in the Appraisal Business


The methodology for studying the strategic potential of valuation companies in Russia is based on the use of the Strategic Matrix of the Company software package, the algorithm of which involves the analysis of qualitative and quantitative indicators that allow building a complete profile of the company and giving a scenario forecast of its development. The main qualitative parameters taken for analysis include such as the degree of innovation and differentiation of services, the level of competition and the position of the company in the market, the priority of certain strategic goals in the company’s activities, the effectiveness of motivation, corporate culture, the ability to quickly access the necessary resources.


1. God bol’shikh nadezhd. Rynok otsenki opravilsya ot koronakrizisa i zhdet zakonodatel’nykh peremen [Year of Great Hopes. The Appraisal Market has Recovered from the Corona Crisis and is Waiting for Legislative Changes]. Kommersant”, 2021, August, 31, available at:

2. Kratkosrochnyi azhiotazh na rynke nedvizhimosti zavershitsya zhestkoi stagnatsiei [Short-term Boom in the Real Estate Market will End in Hard Stagnation]., 2022, February, 28, available at:

3. Skatov M. Zamestitel’ general’nogo direktora OOO “Mobil’nyi otsenshchik” [Deputy General Director of Mobile Appraiser LLC]. RAEX, available at:

4. Rynok otsenshchikov v Rossii: stagnatsiya, krizis ili novaya real’nost’? [Appraiser Market in Russia: Stagnation, Crisis or New Reality?]. Expert. Biznes-resheniya, available at:

5. Kak transformirovalsya rynok otsenki za poslednee vremya [How the Appraisal Market has Changed in Recent Times]. Rossiiskaya gazeta, 2021, September, 27, available at:

6. Otsenka absurda [Estimating Absurdity]. Ekspert Ural, 2022, no 10–13 (862), available at:

7. Moratorii na bankrotstvo: kak on rabotaet v 2022 godu [Bankruptcy Moratorium: How It Works in 2022]. AG-Ekspert, 2022, April, 11, available at:

8. Nasledniki EY v RF pervymi iz ushedshei “Bol’shoi chetverki” smenili nazvanie [The EY Heirs in the Russian Federation were the First of the Departed Big Four to Change Their Name]., available at:

9. Naslednikov “Bol’shoi chetverki” auditorov v RF proveryat na nezavisimost’ [The Heirs of the Big Four Auditors in Russia will be Checked for Independence]., available at:

10. Bol’shaya chetverka auditorov vyidet iz SRO [Big Four Auditors will Leave the SRO]. Swiss Appraisal, 2016, available at:

Ensuring Sustainability of Territorial Housing Markets in a Turbulent Economy (on the Example of the Penza Region)


The article provides a comprehensive structural analysis of ensuring stability for the territorial housing market in a turbulent economy on the example of the Penza region. The study was carried out in the following fields: structure of developers, volumes and dynamics of construction, the price range of new buildings. In addition, financial express analysis of the main developers in the region was carried out in order to identify their financial stability over the forecast horizon in the face of economic uncertainty. As a separate segment of the research, it is accepted to study dynamics of the main parameters of the mortgage territorial market as the main regulator of the housing market development. Formulated conclusions provide an opportunity to the subjects of the territorial housing market to form innovative individual corporate and government strategies of sustainable development for the short term in a turbulent economy.


1. Asaul A.N., Asaul M.A., Starinskii V.N., Shcherbina G.F. Analiz i prognozirovanie rynka [Analysis and Forecasting of the Market]. Moscow, Yurait, 2022, 296 p. (Vysshee obrazovanie).

2. Asaul A.N., Starinskii V.N., Mamedov Sh.M., Shcherbina G.F. Analiz i prognozirovanie rynochnoi kon”yunktury [Analysis and Forecasting of Market Conditions]. Saint-Petersburg, ANO “Institut problem ekonomicheskogo vozrozhdeniya”, 2018, 464 p.

3. Asaul A.N., Asaul M.A., Lyulin P.B., Chepachenko N.V. Trendy zhilishchnogo stroitel’stva v Rossii i srednesrochnyi prognoz [Housing Construction Trends in Russia and Medium-term Forecast]. Problemy prognozirovaniya, 2019, no 3, pp. 111–117.

4. Asaul A. N., Asaul M. A., Liulin P. B., Chepachenko N.V. Housing Construction in Russia: Trends and Medium-Range Forecasts. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 2019, vol. 30, N 3, pp. 313–318, DOI 10.1134/S1075700719030055.

5. Baronin S.A., Kulakov K.Yu. Genezis upravleniya stoimost’yu kontraktov zhiznennogo tsikla ob”ekta kapital’nogo stroitel’stva i stoimosti vladeniya nedvizhimost’yu [Genesis of Managing the Cost of Life Cycle Contracts for a Capital Construction Object and the Cost of Real Estate Ownership]. Nedvizhimost’: ekonomika, upravlenie, 2020, no 1, pp. 10–14.

6. Baronin S.A., Kulakov K.Yu., Timofeev K. P. Teoriya i praktika upravleniya konkurentosposobnost’yu na pervichnykh zhilishchnykh rynkakh po segment kompanii-liderov [Theory and Practice of Managing Competitiveness in Primary Housing Markets in the Segment of Leading Companies]. Penza, Penzenskii gosudarstvennyi universitet arkhitektury i stroitel’stva, 2017, 156 p.

7. Baronin S., Kulakov K. Development of life cycle valuation with priority of national projects and energy efficiency. E3S Web of Conferences. Rostov-on-Don, October 20–23, 2020. Rostov-on-Don, 2020, p. 07006, DOI 10.1051/e3sconf/202021707006.

8. Buzyrev V.V., Selyutina L.G. Zhilishchnaya problema i puti ee resheniya v sovremennykh usloviyakh [Housing Problem and Ways of Its Solution in Modern Conditions]. Saint-Petersburg, Izd-vo Sankt-Peterburgskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2013, 335 p.

Features and Directions of Real Estate Valuation for the Purposes of State Economic Policy in the Context of Digitalization


The article deals with topical issues of digital cadastral accounting, calculating the value of a real estate object in the context of the dynamics of market indicators. The statistics of the distribution of Russian cities by the indicator of the average level of real estate prices in the context of market types in 2020 are reflected. An approach to the formation of reports on the results of real estate valuation is proposed.



1. Khrustalev B.B., Ayupova Z.V. Osnovnye napravleniya effektivnogo razvitiya rynka kommercheskoi nedvizhimosti v zhilom sektore [The Main Directions of Effective Development of the Commercial Real Estate Market in the Residential Sector]. Ekonomika stroitel’stva, 2021, no 1, 44–53.

2. Zinkovskii M.A. Ekonomika i grazhdanskii oborot: nekotorye aspekty vzaimosvyazi [Economics and Civil Circulation: Some Aspects of the Relationship]. Gosudarstvennaya vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2021, no 5, pp. 29–34.

3. Belyaev M.K. Tsifrovye metamorfozy torgovli [Digital Metamorphoses of Trade]. Problemy natsional’noi strategii, 2021, no 2, pp. 85–98.

4. Volovich N.V., Kovalev D.V. Voprosy osparivaniya rezul’tatov opredeleniya kadastrovoi stoimosti ob”ektov nedvizhimosti. Part 1. Metodologiya [Issues of Challenging the Results of Determining the Cadastral Value of Real Estate Objects. Part 1. Methodology]. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2021, no 2, pp. 53–64.

5. Predvaritel’nye itogi rynka nedvizhimosti za 2020 god, perspektivy 2021 ot ekspertov rossiiskoi gil’dii rieltorov [Preliminary Results of the Real Estate Market for 2020, Prospects for 2021 from Experts of the Russian Guild of Realtors]. Rossiiskaya gil’diya rieltorov, 22 p., available at:

6. Analiticheskaya sistema ob”ektov nedvizhimosti [Analytical System of Real Estate Objects], available at:

7. Yablonovskaya M.Yu. Metody otsenki upravleniya informatsionno-analiticheskoi sistemoi kadastra nedvizhimosti munitsipal’nogo obrazovaniya. Pokolenie budushchego: vzglyad molodykh uchenykh – 2015: Sb. nauchnykh statei 4-i Mezhdunarodnoi molodezhnoi nauchnoi konferentsii [Methods of Assessing the Management of the Information and Analytical System of the Real Estate Cadastre of the Municipality. The Generation of the Future: the View of Young Scientists-2015. Collection of Scientific Articles of the 4th International Youth Scientific Conference]. V 4 t. Kursk: Universitetskaya kniga, 2015.

8. Yarotskaya E.V., Matveeva A.V., Zaitseva Ya.V. Osnovy otsenki ob”ektov nedvizhimosti [Fundamentals of Real Estate Valuation]. Ucheb. posobie, Krasnodar, KubGAU, 2020, 66 p.

9. Stroitel’stvo [Construction]. Rosstat, available at:

10. Lavrova E.V., Morgun T.N., Polyakova O.E. Analiz rynka nedvizhimosti kak istochnik informatsii dlya formirovaniya kadastrovoi stoimosti [Analysis of the Real Estate Market as a Source of Information for the Formation of the Cadastral Value]. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya, 2018, no 6, pp. 148–153.

The Failure of Automated System of Planning Calculations (ASPC) as Theoretical and Methodological Mistake of the State Planning Committee: Analysis and Conclusions


Real economic growth and development is no longer conceivable without digital revolution achievements. However, to this day, introduction of these achievements into the national economy is far from being the easiest task, since its solution entails a number of methodological and conceptual problems. That was also understood in the USSR after the end of the Second World War, when society for the first time in history thought about improving the national economy management based on the latest technological solutions. The project of automating economic planning, officially called the automated system of planning calculations (ASPC) became a new unique solution of that time. Such a system was supposed to bring Soviet planning to a qualitatively higher level, however, due to theoretical and methodological contradictions contained in the concept, the Soviet digitalization project initially went the wrong way and was never brought to its logical conclusion. The question is whether it was possible to implement ASPC with the same capacities, but with the different theoretical and methodological basis.



1. Lebedinskii N.P. Osnovy metodologii planirovaniya i avtomatizatsii planovykh raschetov [Fundamentals of Planning and Automation Methodology for Planned Calculations]. Ucheb. dlya sistemy perepodgot. i povysheniya kvalifikatsii ruk. kadrov nar. khoz-va. ANKh pri Sovete Ministrov SSSR. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1989, p. 102.

2. Metody i modeli ASPR: itogi i perspektivy [ASPC Methods and Models: Results and Prospects]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1989, p. 6.

3. Avanproekt avtomatizirovannoi sistemy planovykh raschetov Gosplana SSSR i gosplanov soyuznykh respublik [Preliminary Design of an Automated System for Planning Calculations of the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the State Planning Committees of the Union Republics]. Moscow, 1969, p. 12.

4. ASPR — avtomatizirovannaya sistema planovykh raschetov (osnovnye printsipy proektirovaniya) [ASPС — Automated System of Planning Calculations (Basic

Design Principles)]. Moscow, TsEMI AN SSSR, 1970, 130 p.

5. Lebedinskii N.P. Voprosy sozdaniya i funktsionirovaniya avtomatizirovannoi sistemy planovykh raschetov [Issues of Creation and Functioning of an Automated System of Planning Calculations]. Ucheb. posobie. Moscow,ANKh SSSR, 1979, p. 10.

6. Veduta E.N., Dzhakubova T.N. Ekonomicheskaya nauka i ekonomiko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie [Economic Science and Economic-Mathematical Modeling]. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie. Elektronnyi vestnik, 2016, no 57, pp. 287–307.

7. Veduta N.I. Sotsial’no effektivnaya ekonomika [Socially Efficient Economy]. Moscow, Izd-vo REA, 1999, 254 p.

8. Galushka A.S., Niyazmetov A.K., Okulov M.O. Kristall rosta. K russkomu ekonomicheskomu chudu [Crystal of Growth. To the Russian Economic Miracle]. Moscow, 2021, 360 p.

9. Elena Veduta. Otvet “Kommersantu”: chto takoe model’ mezhotraslevogo mezhsektornogo balansa [The Answer to Kommersant: What is the Model of Intersectoral Cross-industry Balance]. Regnum, 2021, November, 5, available at:

Dominance of National Systems of Higher Education


The theory of economic dominance in a multilevel economy, developed by Blokhin A.A. and Lomakin-Rumyantsev I.V., has been actively tested by researches on different markets since 2019 — the distribution of players in the markets allows to formulate different strategies for their development. This article is a development of studies devoted to the study of competition in the education market and presents the result of economic dominance of national higher education systems in the international market. This research aims to analyze the subject areas of social sciences and management, for further identifying dominance in the QS ranking.

The sample consists of 58 QS subject rankings for 2018–2021. The main instrument is the SV-matrix (strength/variety). The analysis outlines areas of subject ratings where there is dominance of national educational systems and characterizes its level. In addition, an interpretation of the situation when constructing the SV matrix, where Lind index shows boundary values when determining dominant group size. The SV matrix gives valid results and allows both qualitatively and quantitatively assessing the positions of countries in educational rankings. Analysis using SV-matrix made it possible to identify 8 out of 15 subject areas, in which there is clear dominance and determined positions of Russian universities relative to the dominant group. The hypothesis of United States presence in the dominant group in most areas of social sciences and management was confirmed, however, several subjects were defined, where the higher education system of anther countries were in the lead. The scientific novelty of this study lies in the proposal and testing of a method for assessing the level of dominance of national educational systems in the international education market. The SV matrix allows to analyze the positions of different countries in the international educational space, both in dynamics and in statics (to assess the level of competitiveness of national educational systems); to understand theoretically the level of differentiation of national educational systems in certain subject ratings; to assess the concentration (barriers to enter the rating) and the strength of competition (how strongly the players differ) of subject areas.


1. Kireeva N., Slepenkova E., Shipunova T., Iskandaryan R. Competitiveness of Higher Education Institutions and Academic Entrepreneurship. Espacios, 2018, no 23, pp. 15–25.

2. Nefedova A.I. Masshtaby, struktura i tseli eksporta rossiiskogo vysshego obrazovaniya [Scales, Structure and Reason for Export of Russian Higher Education].

Mir Rossii. Sotsiologiya. Etnologiya, 2017, no 2, pp. 154–174.

3. Vorob’eva E.S., Krakovetskaya I.V. Prodvizhenie rossiiskikh vuzov v mirovye reitingi konkurentosposobnosti: tsel’ blizka? [Promoting Russian Universities in the World Ratings of Competitiveness: is the Goal in Sight?]. Kreativnaya ekonomika, 2017, no 5, pp. 521–552.

Political Role of the Dunbar Project in Developing the Global Financial Architecture


Digitalization is one of the main transformation processes of the modern system of global interactions, changing the nature of social links not only at the technical and economic, but also at the political level. Herewith, technological innovations also become instruments of political influence. The present article analyzes the management structure of one of the leading participants in the global financial market — the Bank for International Settlements (hereinafter — BIS) and highlights the important place the BIS occupies in the global financial architecture on the example of the Dunbar project, being developed in its innovation hub. In digital age the BIS has assumed a new leading role in exploring, developing and testing digital innovations in the central banking sector. It is noted that potential to use the BIS for political purposes is great, given that the Dunbar project will have far-reaching consequences for the structure of modern international relations.


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Analysis of scientific methods and practical approaches to assessing the economic efficiency of gas motor fuel

DOI: 10.33917/mic-3.104.2022.5-11

The work is devoted to the generalization of scientific methods and practical approaches for choosing an effective gas motorization policy. Domestic and foreign peculiarities of evaluating the economic efficiency of projects in the field of gas motor fuel are disclosed in detail. The author describes the assessment of the environmental and economic benefits of natural gas motor fuel based on the calculation of social costs, the cost-benefit analysis.

The conclusion is made about the insufficient development of the model of the functioning of the gas engine market, cooperation and competitive behavior of participants, methods for assessing its economic efficiency and commercial potential at the national level and the level of economic entities.


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