Rigorousness of the Hydrogen Strategy

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.88-95

The main criterion for classifying hydrogen is the amount of carbon emissions generated during its production. Since only green hydrogen, received from renewable energy sources (RES), can be considered a fuel with a minimal carbon footprint, the article examines the question of to what extent the hydrogen strategies of various countries may be regarded as decarbonized. A typological approach is applied and a framework is established to define the stringency of green hydrogen regulation in national hydrogen strategies based on three parameters: fossil fuel penalties, hydrogen certification and exceptional technology development. According to these parameters, countries are classified into groups depending on the degree of regulation severity. The problems, associated with increasing the strictness of regulation for hydrogen production both at the national and international levels, are identified.



1. Hydrogen from renewable power. Technology outlook for the energy transition. IRENA. 2018. URL: https://www.irena.org/-/media/Files/IRENA/Agency/Publication/2018/Sep/IRENA_Hydrogen_from_renewable_power_2018.pdf.

2. Etapy sertifikatsii. 2022 [Certification Stages. 2022]. CERTIFHY. URL: https://www.certifhy.eu/steps-of-certification/

3. Indiya obnarodovala svoyu vodorodnuyu politiku [India has Unveiled Its Hydrogen Policy]. RenEn, 2022, available at: https://renen.ru/indiya-obnarodovalasvoyu-vodorodnuyu-politiku/

4. Garcia-Herrero A., Tagliapietra S., Vorsatz V. Hydrogen development strategies: a global perspective. Bruegel, 2021, available at: https://www.bruegel.org/2021/08/hydrogen-development-strategies-a-global-perspective/

5. Chili planiruet voiti v troiku krupneishikh eksporterov zelenogo vodoroda — strategiya [Chile Plans to Become One of the Top Three Exporters of Green Hydrogen — Strategy]. RenEn, 2020, available at: https://renen.ru/chili-planiruet-vojti-v-trojku-krupnejshih-eksportyorov-zelyonogo-vodoroda/

6. Opublikovana vodorodnaya strategiya Norvegii [Norway has Published Its Hydrogen Strategy]. RenEn, 2020, available at: https://renen.ru/opublikovanavodorodnaya-strategiya-norvegii/

7. Ministry of Power notifies Green Hydrogen / Green Ammonia Policy. Press Information Bureau Government of India, 2020, available at: https://pib.gov.in/PressReleasePage.aspx?PRID=1799067.

8. The Norwegian Government’s hydrogen strategy. Norwegian Ministry of Petroleum and Energy, Norwegian Ministry of Climate and Environment, 2020, available at: https://www.regjeringen.no/contentassets/40026db2148e41eda8e3792d259efb6b/y-0127e.pdf.

9. OAE ob”yavili o dorozhnoi karte vodorodnogo liderstva, ukreplyaya priverzhennost’ strany k sozdaniyu ekonomicheskikh vozmozhnostei posredstvom reshitel’nykh deistvii v oblasti klimata [UAE Announced Hydrogen Leadership Roadmap, Confirming Country’s Commitment to Creating Economic Opportunities Through Decisive Climate Action]. Emirates News Agency — WAM, 2021, available at: https://wam.ae/ru/details/1395302989185.

Scenario Analysis of the Fuel Company Competitiveness in the World Market of Tolerant Nuclear Fuel for NPPs

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.78-87

The article analyses the market of goods and services at the initial stage of nuclear fuel cycle. Particular attention is paid to nuclear fuel fabrication and the impact of new promising types of fuel (including tolerant) on domestic companies’ market positions. Based on scenario analysis, the authors show the possibility to partially offset export earnings in case of possible loss of the fabrication market share due to increasing sales in other key stages of the nuclear fuel cycle — uranium conversion and enrichment.


1. Increased Accident Tolerance of Fuels for Light Water Reactors. Workshop Proceedings OECD/NEA Headquarters Issy-les-Moulineaux, France, 10–12 December 2012. NEA-OECD, 2013, 534 p.

2. State-of-the-Art Report on Light Water Reactor Accident-Tolerant Fuels. NEA-OECD, 2018, 372 p.

3. Nikipelova N. Viewpoint: How ATF could shape the nuclear fuel market. World Nuclear News, available at: https://world-nuclear-news.org/Articles/Viewpoint-How-ATF-could-shape-the-nuclear-fuel-mar.

4. Semenov E.V., Kharitonov V.V. Mikroekonomika povysheniya bezopasnosti AES na osnove tolerantnogo topliva [Microeconomics of NPP Safety Improvement Based on Tolerant Fuel]. Mikroekonomika, 2021, no 5, pp. 49–62.

5. Karpyuk L.A., Kuznetsov V.I., Maslov A.A. et al. Toplivo s khromovym pokrytiem obolochki tvela, ustoichivoe k avarii [Fuel with Chromium-Plated Fuel Element Cladding, Crash Resistant]. Atomnaya energiya, 2021, no 3, pp. 142–148.

6. Karpyuk L.A., Savchenko A.M., Leont’eva-Smirnova M.V. et al. Perspektivy primeneniya stal’nykh obolochek dlya tvelov reaktorov tipa VVER v ramkakh kontseptsii topliva, ustoichivogo k avariinym situatsiyam [Prospects for Applying Steel Cladding for Fuel Elements of VVER Type Reactors Within the Concept of Fuel Resistant to Emergency Situations]. Atomnaya energiya, 2020, no 4, pp. 203–207.

7. Karpyuk L.A., Lysikov A.V., Maslov A.A. et al. Perspektivnoe metallicheskoe uran-molibdenovoe toplivo, ustoichivoe k avariyam [Promising Metallic Uraniummolybdenum Fuel Resistant to Accidents]. Atomnaya energiya, 2021, no 3, pp. 148–152.

8. Karpyuk L.A., Novikov V.V., Kulakov G.V. et al. Splav 42KhNM i karbid kremniya kak material obolochek tvelov, ustoichivykh k avariyam [42KhNM Alloy and Silicon Carbide as a Material for Fuel Rod Cladding Resistant to Accidents]. Atomnaya energiya, 2021, no 4, pp. 211–215.

9. Kritskii V.G., Kalin B.A. Korroziya obolochek tvelov v zhiznennom tsikle TVS legkovodnykh reaktorov [Corrosion of Fuel Claddings in the Life Cycle of Fuel Assemblies in Light Water Reactors]. Moscow, NIYaU MIFI, 2020, 200 p.

10. Kharitonov V.V. Dinamika razvitiya yadernoi energetiki. Ekonomiko-analiticheskie model [Dynamics of Nuclear Power Development. Economic and Analytical Models]. NIYaU MIFI, 2014, 328 p.

11. Sinev M.N. Ekonomika yadernoi energetiki: Osnovy tekhnologii i ekonomiki proizvodstva yadernogo topliva. Ekonomika AES [Nuclear Power Economics: Fundamentals of Technology and Economics of Nuclear Fuel Production. NPP Economics]. M.: Energoatomizdat, 1987. 480 s.

Strategies for Business Internationalization of Chinese State-Owned Oil and Gas Companies

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.72-79

The article is devoted to the analysis of the specifics of the business international expansion of large Chinese state-owned companies in the oil and gas sector: China National Oil and Gas Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (SINOPEC), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC). The article examines the strategic guidelines of the companies, the factors influencing the strategies, formats and forms of expansion, regional specifics of business internationalization, trends in the development of activities in foreign markets. The problems of specialization and business diversification of the studied companies are considered. Special attention is paid to the role of the state in the processes of international expansion of Chinese oil and gas companies.


1. Bhattacharyya S. China and the Global Energy Crisis: Development and Prospects for China’s Oil and Natural Gas. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 2017, Vol. 1, N 2, pp. 56–61.

2. Shell sells shale stake to China. International Gas Report, 2012, February, 13.

3. PetroChina snaps up remainder of AOSC’s MacKay River project. The Oil and Gas Journal, 2018, January, 16, pp. 71–75.

4. Devon and Sinopec team up for five-play venture. Upstream, 2019, January, 6, pp. 32–37.

5. Neftyanaya i neftepererabatyvayushchaya promyshlennost’ Kitaya [Oil and Refining Industry in China]. TsDU TEK, 2020, March, 30, available at: http://www.cdu.ru/tek_russia/articles/1/725/

6. Ghemawat P. Strategy and the Business Landscape. 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 2010.

On the Formation of Common Markets for Oil and Petroleum Products of the Eurasian Economic Union

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.58-71

This article is devoted to the activities on the formation of common markets for oil and petroleum products of the Eurasian Economic Union. At the same time, these common markets are considered by the author as a factor in ensuring the interests of the national economies of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union, contributing to increasing the level of economic integration of the member states. It is noted that relations currently in the oil sector within the Union are carried out on a bilateral basis within the framework of intergovernmental agreements. Certain issues of ensuring energy security are considered, it is noted that the key goal of ensuring the energy security of the Union should be, first of all, maintaining the energy resource base of each Member State and the Union as a whole.


1. Dogovor o Evraziiskom ekonomicheskom soyuze ot 29 maya 2014 g. [Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union of May 29, 2014]. Ministerstvo ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: https://www.economy.gov.ru/material/file/2bbbbf9ae33443d533d855bf2225707e/Dogovor_ees.pdf.

2. Kontseptsiya formirovaniya obshchikh rynkov nefti i nefteproduktov Soyuza, utverzhdennaya Resheniem Vysshego Evraziiskogo ekonomicheskogo soveta ot 31 maya 2016 g. N 8 [The Concept of Forming Common Markets for Oil and Oil Products of the Union, Approved by Decision of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council Dated May 31, 2016 No. 8]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/456006395.

3. Programma formirovaniya obshchikh rynkov nefti I nefteproduktov Soyuza, utverzhdennaya Resheniem Vysshego Evraziiskogo ekonomicheskogo soveta ot 6 dekabrya 2018 g. N 23 [The Program for Forming Common Markets for Oil and Oil Products of the Union, Approved by Decision of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council Dated December 6, 2018 No. 23]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/551866200.

4. Zakrevskii V.A. Obshchii rynok nefti EAES kak universal’nyi integrator [The EAEU Common Oil Market as a Universal Integrator]. NEFT’ i kapital. Analiticheskii zhurnal, 2021, no 9, September, pp. 36–40.

5. Glikman O.V., Nazarova A.U. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye osnovy energeticheskogo sotrudnichestva gosudarstv — chlenov Evraziiskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza [International Legal Framework for Energy Cooperation Between the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union]. Pravo i upravlenie. XXI vek, 2020, no 1, pp. 28–35.

6. Evraziiskii ekonomicheskii soyuz: tsifry i fakty. 2020. Energetika i infrastruktura [Eurasian Economic Union: Figures and Facts. 2020. Energy and Infrastructure]. Evraziiskaya ekonomicheskaya komissiya, 2020, pp. 23–24, available at: http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ru/Documents/3264_ЕЭК_ЦИФ%20-%202020_энергетикаИинфраструктура.pdf.

7. Romanova V.V. Problemy mezhdunarodno-pravovoi unifikatsii v sfere energetiki i garmonizatsii zakonodatel’stva gosudarstv — uchastnikov mezhdunarodnykh energeticheskikh rynkov na primere evraziiskoi ekonomicheskoi integratsii [Problems of International Legal Unification in the Field of Energy and Harmonization of the Legislation of States Participating in International Energy Markets on the Example of Eurasian Economic Integration]. Pravovoi energeticheskii forum, 2015, no 3, pp. 12–18.

Safety of the Belarusian NPP is Under Control!

#6. For the High Norm
Safety of the Belarusian NPP is Under Control!

Today, one of the most advanced options for electricity production is the use of nuclear reactors, for which a nuclear power plant near the city of Ostrovets is being built in the Republic of Belarus. The Belarusian NPP is being built with the help of the most advanced technologies: tolerant nuclear fuel, allowing to prevent accidents like Fukushima, the “digital twin” – an information model connected to its physical object in real time during the operational phase. However, the “construction of the century” has got not only supporters, but also opponents both in the country and abroad. What is the basis of such an attitude to the nuclear energy development in Belarus, whether digitalization of the plant will increase its vulnerability, as well as how nuclear safety is ensured in Belarus – all these aspects were discussed in the interview with the “ES” magazine by Olga M. Lugovskaya, Head of the Department for Nuclear and Radiation Safety at the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the Republic of Belarus.

Impact of Post-Industrial Processes on the World Power Engineering and CO2 Emissions

#1. Event Horison
Impact of Post-Industrial Processes on the World Power Engineering and CO2 Emissions

Transition to the postindustrial phase of the economic development is characterized by saturation in dependence of energy consumption from economic growth. Maximum of global energy use equal to 25–30 G toe and twofold of the current level is expected in the middle of the century. Perspectives of CO2 emission limitation by the level determined by the UN Paris climate agreement are analyzed by transformation of global energy sources.

History of Energy Prices

#1. Event Horison
History of Energy Prices

In this article long-term trends of the energy market are viewed not from the point of view of supply and demand balance, as it is usually done, but exclusively analyzing quotations. Particular attention is paid to coal prices, which have been traced since 1834. The main conclusion is that there isn’t any shortage of raw materials on the planet, and the tendency of refusing mineral fuel in favor of renewable sources, if it is manifested in quotations — it will happen only in several decades. Much more important for price dynamics are big cycles of the business situation, on the basis of which a long-term forecast is made.

Safety is the Highest Priority for the Nuclear Industry

#4. Monument up to the Sky
Safety is the Highest Priority for the Nuclear Industry

“The annual report is an effective mechanism for building trust between the company and the parties concerned. We are actively working in foreign markets, lately the range of stakeholders has significantly expanded, rersulting in raising requirements for public reporting”, said Valery Igorevich Limarenko, president of the ASE Group of Companies, doctor of economics. In an interview with the “ES” magazine he told about successes and achievements in modern nuclear power plants designing, as well as about peculiarities of a full-fledged project risk management system.

International Energy Hubs: New Strategic Model of Integrating Russian Energy Companies in the Global Economy

#4. Monument up to the Sky
International Energy Hubs: New Strategic Model of Integrating Russian Energy Companies in the Global Economy

One of the major goals of political and economic sanctions, imposed on Russia in post-Crimean period, is an attempt of Western geostrategic players to intercept the trade and financial flows between Russia and the countries importing energy and raw resources of Russian or transit origin. These flows are the basis of economic, political and social well-being of Russia. Under extremely severe change of external economic conditions of the Russian energy companies activities an urgent development of a new strategy for their integration into the world economy is required. Such a strategy should be based on the organizational model of the space-stream arrangements and interaction of Russian energy companies, which could be implemented in the most effective way based on the concept of forming energy hubs abroad as a kind of energy infrastructure nodes combining different business profiles of Russian economic agents activities.