The "Economic Strategies" journal

2022 #1. Unknown Known

Strategies for Business Internationalization of Chinese State-Owned Oil and Gas Companies


The article is devoted to the analysis of the specifics of the business international expansion of large Chinese state-owned companies in the oil and gas sector: China National Oil and Gas Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (SINOPEC), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC). The article examines the strategic guidelines of the companies, the factors influencing the strategies, formats and forms of expansion, regional specifics of business internationalization, trends in the development of activities in foreign markets. The problems of specialization and business diversification of the studied companies are considered. Special attention is paid to the role of the state in the processes of international expansion of Chinese oil and gas companies.


1. Bhattacharyya S. China and the Global Energy Crisis: Development and Prospects for China’s Oil and Natural Gas. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 2017, Vol. 1, N 2, pp. 56–61.

2. Shell sells shale stake to China. International Gas Report, 2012, February, 13.

3. PetroChina snaps up remainder of AOSC’s MacKay River project. The Oil and Gas Journal, 2018, January, 16, pp. 71–75.

4. Devon and Sinopec team up for five-play venture. Upstream, 2019, January, 6, pp. 32–37.

5. Neftyanaya i neftepererabatyvayushchaya promyshlennost’ Kitaya [Oil and Refining Industry in China]. TsDU TEK, 2020, March, 30, available at:

6. Ghemawat P. Strategy and the Business Landscape. 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 2010.

Expertise of Solutions in the Public Administration System


The purpose of the study is to analyze the expert activity in the Russian Federation, with the receipt of basic recommendations for the deployment of a system of state expertise. The research methodology is a comparative, retrospective analysis, a method of taxonomy of management problems and the solution of poorly structured problems. The application of the indicated methodology allowed us to come to the main result, which boils down to the fact that in Russia expert activity at the state level has significant limitations for many reasons, which reduces the effectiveness of analytical management. This constitutes a condition for the failure of many programs and doctrines, namely strategic documents for development until 2020, and also blocks the formation of a new model of economic growth at the level of the state policy pursued for a decade. In addition, ill-considered reforms in education, science, and the administrative sphere also confirm the existence of significant gaps in the field of analytical public administration. Overcoming the listed problems is seen in the deployment of a system of state expertise on the basis of the relevant Federal Law with the leading role of the Academy of Sciences, since expertise involves exploratory, scientific activities, multivariate analysis and predictive assessments. In the course of the analysis, including the drafts of the Regulation on the support of expert activities in the executive authorities of Russia, developed at the Academy of Sciences, it is nevertheless proposed to abandon the public status of expert councils, as well as to change approaches in the field of recommendations and consideration of the examinations   themselves. Also proposed are corrections of some rules for voting on expertise and the level of responsibility of the experts themselves for their conclusions, including the responsibility of the authorities regarding the consideration of expert opinions. Thus, in the course of the study, he proposes to launch a large-scale work on the formation of a system of state expertise that functions at all levels of management with budgetary resources allocated for this.


1. Chichkanov V.P., Sukharev O.S. Razvit ie Rossiiskoi akademii nauk: reshenie organizatsionnykh zadach [Development of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Solution of Organizational Tasks]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 3, pp. 120–129. DOI:

2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 4 fevralya 2021 g. N 68 “Ob otsenke effektivnosti deyatel’nosti vysshikh dolzhnostnykh lits (rukovoditelei vysshikh ispolnitel’nykh organov gosudarstvennoi vlasti) sub”ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i deyatel’nosti organov ispolnitel’noi vlasti sub”ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [On the Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Activities of Senior Officials (Heads of the Highest Executive Bodies of State Power) of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation and the Activities of the Executive Bodies of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of February 4, 2021 No. 68]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF. URL: news/64970.

Parametric Monitoring of Defence Industry Organizations as a Strategic Management Tool


The article proposes an approach to developing strategic management decisions at the parent companies’ level of defence industry groups regarding human resources development. Identification of interrelations between the decisions taken and their consequences is carried out based on analysis of changes in the rank statistics of the enterprises’ key indicators. Using the data on the age distribution of employees of JSC Concern VKO Almaz-Antey, the need to adjust the average age indicator is substantiated. Particular attention is paid to improving the calculation of the parameter of labor productivity within the research organizations of the defence industry.



1. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Eroshin S.E. Otsenka effektivnosti deyatel’nosti predpriyatii oboronnogo kontserna [Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Defence Concern Enterprises]. Elektronnaya promyshlennost’, 2005, no. 3, pp. 66–73.

2. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Eroshin S.E. Metod postroeniya reitingovoi sistemy otsenok [Method of Constructing the Rating System of Assessments]. Vestnik mashinostroeniya, 2007, no. 9, pp. 73–76.

3. Eroshin S.E., Kozlov G.V. Otsenka effektivnosti deyatel’nosti issledovatelei v razlichnykh sektorakh nauki [Evaluation of Researchers Efficiency in Various Sectors of Science]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2016, no. 2, pp. 116–123.

4. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Kutuzov I.V. Model’nyi analiz vozrastnoi dinamiki kadrovoi struktury predpriyatii oboronno-promyshlennogo kompleksa [Model Analysis of the Age Dynamics of the Personnel Structure at the Enterprises of the Military-industrial Complex]. Promyshlennaya politika v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2008, no. 6.

5. Konoval’chik A.P., Eroshin S.E. Obrazovatel’nyi aspekt tsifrovizatsii [Educational Aspect of Digitalization]. Innovatsii, 2021, no. 2, pp. 11–15.

6. Eroshin S.E., Kozlov G.V. Analiz sistemy upravleniya nauchnymi issledovaniyami [Analysis of the Management System of Scientific Research]. Innovatsii, 2020, no. 6, pp. 42–45.

7. Eroshin S.E., Klimentov G.A. Formirovanie sistemy pokazatelei effektivnosti NIOKR [Establishing a System of R&D Performance Indicators]. Innovatsii, 2020, no. 11, pp. 26–29.

Transaction Costs in Development and Creation of New Weapons and Military Equipment and the Problems of Their Diversification


The article dwells on the issues of the production process from the point of view of the life cycle. Factors are proposed, consideration of which will allow to minimize transaction costs of producing new and upgrading existing products. The author articulates the features of domestic production, the progress of which should contribute to the industry development.


1. GOST R 15.000–2016 “Sistema razrabotki i postanovki produktsii na proizvodstvo. Osnovnye polozheniya” [GOST R 15.000–2016 “System of Product Development and Launching into Production. Basic Provisions”]. Kodeks, available at:

2. GOST RV 15.004–2004 “Sistema razrabotki i postavki produktsii na proizvodstva. Voennaya tekhnika. Stadii zhiznennogo tsikla izdelii i materialov” [GOST RV 15.004-2004 “System of Product Development and Delivery to Production Facilities. Military Equipment. Life Cycle Stages of Products and Materials”]. VII SFU, available at:

3. GOST R 56135–2014 “Upravlenie zhiznennym tsiklom produktsii voennogo naznacheniya. Obshchie polozheniya” [GOST R 56135–2014 “Life Cycle Management of Military Products. General Provisions”]. Kodeks, available at:

4. K tsifre gotov? Otsenka adaptivnosti VTK Rossii k realiyam tsifrovoi ekonomiki [Ready for Digital? Evaluating Adaptability of the Russian MTC to the Digital Economy Realities]. Moscow, Institut ekonomicheskikh strategii, 2018, 61 p.

5. Novaya tekhnologicheskaya revolyutsiya: vyzovy i vozmozhnosti dlya Rossii: Ekspertno-analiticheskii doklad [New Technological Revolution: Challenges and Opportunities for Russia: Expert-analytical Report]. Pod nauch. ruk. V.N. Knyaginina. Moscow, Tsentr strategicheskikh razrabotok, 2017, 136 p.

6. The future of productivity — preliminary version. OECD, 2015, p. 83, available at:

7. Tsifrovaya ekonomika: global’nye trendy i praktika rossiiskogo biznesa: Doklad Natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo universiteta “Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki” [Digital Economy: Global Trends and Russian Business Practice: Report of the National Research University Higher School of Economics]. Moscow, 2017, 121 p.

8. Ivanov V.V., Malinetskii G.G. Tsifrovaya ekonomika: mify, real’nost’, perspektiva [Digital Economy: Myths, Reality, Prospects]. Moscow, RAN, 2017, 64 p.

9. Moiseev N.N. Matematika stavit eksperiment [Mathematics does Experiment]. Moscow, Nauka, 1979.

Polymorphic Gamma-Scale of Economic Development


The dynamic series of compound interest always contains transcendental numbers, which the author uses to construct the dual functions of polymorphic growth and development. These gamma functions quantize geoeconomic space and time in the form of historical stages of development. They also reveal dialectical pairs of gamma quanta of the core of civilization and lambda quanta of the leading countries. The author proposes a gamma scale for measuring the level of development of national economies.


1. Ponomarev V. Antropologicheskaya politekonomiya: Kontseptsiya teorii samorazvitiya [Anthropological Political Economy: The Concept of the Theory of Self-Development]. Saarbryuken, LAP, 2013.

2. VVP na dushu naseleniya v 1990–2020 gg. (Vsemirnyi bank; PPS, doll.) [GDP per Capita 1990–2020]., available at:

The Cradle of Life will Become the “Pasture„ of “Unicorns„


The era of digital reorganisation will engender transformation of the world economy, largely determining the vector of civilizational development. Despite the losses of the 20th century, Russia, having the potential of fundamental science and resource self-sufficiency, is still among the few countries capable of leadership in changing conditions. Post-COVID economy has only accelerated the transformation process, generating thrust for the rapid growth of “unicorns”, mainly in the markets of platform and ecosystem solutions. Russia may become the “homeland” of such “unicorns”, and their scaling will provide the growing consumer market of Africa, which is a favourable territory for development and localization of scaling of science-intensive exports that can ensure the well-being of national economies.


1. Mirovaya geografiya kompanii-edinorogov [Global Geography of Unicorn Companies]. Nauka, tekhnologii, innovatsii, 2021, September, 24, available at:

2. United Nations e-Government Survey 2018. United Nations, 2018, available at:

3. Rossiya stala odnim iz mirovykh liderov po urovnyu proniknoveniya fintekh-uslug [Russia has Become One of the World Leaders in Terms of Fintech Services Penetration]. EY, available at:

4. Pri Mishustine nalogovoe vedomstvo Rossii stalo odnim iz luchshikh v mire [Under Mishustin, the Tax Department of Russia has Become One of the Best in the World]. Federal’noe agentstvo novostei, available at:

5. African Economic Outlook 2021. African Development Bank Group, available at:

6. Sammit “Rossiya — Afrika” [Russia-Africa Summit]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at:

7. From magazine: African air cargo market bucks global trend. Logistics update Africa, available at:

Major Factors of the Settlement of Migrants from Central Asian Countries in Siberia and the Far East


With the Soviet Union’s collapse Russia became a recipient country for labour migrants from Central Asian countries. First of all, this is related to the fact that migration subsystem has been formed, based on socio-economic relations between the countries of the former Soviet Union, as well as to geographic proximity; secondly, there are more opportunities for migrants in Russia — there is the lack of jobs in their countries, low wages and therefore migrants move to Russia mainly in search of a better life. In this article, the authors examine the settlement dynamics of migrants from Central Asian countries in the Siberian Federal District and in the Far Eastern Federal District. The main factors that influence the resettlement of migrants in these territories were identified. As a result of the study, it was revealed that these two federal districts are quite attractive for migrants from the mentioned countries, despite rather severe climate, since in case of the Central Asian countries the socio-economic factor prevails over the natural-climatic one.


1. Otchet o nauchno-issledovatel’skoi rabote “Printsipy formirovaniya Ekaterinburgskoi aglomeratsii”: Etap 2 “Podgotovka proektnykh predlozhenii po formirovaniyu Ekaterinburgskoi aglomeratsii” [Report on the “Principles of Forming the Yekaterinburg Agglomeration” Research Work: Stage 2 “Preparation of Project Proposals for the Formation of the Yekaterinburg Agglomeration”]. Ministerstvo stroitel’stva i razvitiya infrastruktury Sverdlovskoi oblasti, available at:

2. Ryazantsev S.V. Rol’ trudovoi migratsii v razvitii ekonomiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Role of Labour Migration in the Development of the Russian Federation’s Economy]. RefWorld, available at:

3. Shafranov-Kutsev G.F. Sotsial’no-demograficheskie problemy osvoeniya Sibiri [Socio-demographic Problems of Siberian Exploration]. Siberian Socium, 2017, no. 1, pp. 13–24, available at: DOI:

4. Rasporyazhenie Pravitel’stva RF ot 27 maya 2013 g. N 848-r “Perechen’ territorii prioritetnogo zaseleniya” (vstupilo v silu s 1 yanvarya 2014 g.) [Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation of May 27, 2013 No. 848-r “List of Priority Settlement Areas” (Came into Force on January 1, 2014)]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Pravitel’stva RF, available at:

5. Migratsionnye protsessy v Sibiri: narody, kul’tury, gosudarstvennaya politika [Migration Processes in Siberia: Peoples, Cultures, State Policy]. Sb. nauch. trudov. Omsk: ITs KAN, 2018, 328 p.

6. V Primor’e zhdut na rabotu trudovykh migrantov [Primorye is Waiting for Labour Migrants to Work]. Sputnik Tadzhikistan, 2018, July, 19, available at:

7. Federal’naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki, available at:

Management Schools in Russia in the 20th Century: on the History of the Issue


The studies on the history of managerial thought do not fully cover the development of management schools in Russia in the 20th century and don’t mention many scientists, who were at the origins of scientific schools, and organizations within which they emerged. Hypotheses are put forward about how researchers in the last 30 years have made an attempt to study the schools of managerial thought in the 20th century in various organizations, especially universities. Narrative, comparative and historical research methods are used. The author describes the main schools of management in Russia in the 20th century, their origins, evolution, inspirers and leaders, as well as their main scientific works. The question of scientific schools of the two greatest mega-projects, successfully implemented in the USSR – nuclear and space project, remains unexplored. It is concluded that in Russia during the twentieth century. Management thought was developing, but it is currently extremely difficult to describe a holistic picture of the evolution of scientific management schools.


1. Bezborodova M.A. Zarubezhnye nauchnye shkoly v psikhologii [Foreign Scientific Schools in Psychology]. Ucheb. posobie. Moscow, Moskovskii pedagogicheskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2020.

2. Nauchnye shkoly Voenno-vozdushnoi inzhenernoi akademii imeni professora N.E. Zhukovskogo (Voennogo aviatsionnogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta): istoriya razvitiya i sovremennoe sostoyanie: izdano k 80-letiyu VVIA im. prof. N.E. Zhukovskogo (VATU) [Scientific Schools of the Air Force Engineering Academy Named after Professor N.E. Zhukovsky (Military Aviation Technical University): History of Development and Current State: Published on the 80th Anniversary of the Air Force Engineering Academy Named after N.E. Zhukovsky (VATU)]. Moscow, Akademiya aviatsii, 2000.

3. Nauchnye shkoly Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta imeni N.E. Baumana. Istoriya razvitiya [Scientific Schools of the Bauman Moscow State

Technical University. History of Development]. 2-e izd. Moscow, Izd-vo MGTU im. N.E. Baumana, 2005.

4. Zaparii V.V. Nauchnye shkoly Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta: Entsiklopediya [Scientific Schools of the Ural Federal University: Encyclopedia]. Ekaterinburg, Izd-vo Ural’skogo universiteta, 2020.

5. Sadovnichii V.A., et al. O nauchnykh issledovaniyakh i nauchnykh shkolakh. Evraziiskoe prostranstvo [On Scientific Research and Scientific Schools. Eurasian Space]. Pod red. V.A. Sadovnichego (gl. red.), I.V. Semina, A.V. Sidorovicha. Moscow, Izd-vo Moskovskogo un-ta, 2010, 255 p. (Seriya: Evraziiskie universitety XXI veka / Evraziiskaya assots. un-tov).

6. Ustyuzhanina E.V., Evsyukov S.G., Petrov A.G., Kazankin R.V., Dmitrieva M.B. Nauchnaya shkola kak strukturnaya edinitsa nauchnoi deyatel’nosti [Scientific School as a Structural unit of Scientific Activity]. Moscow, TsEMI RAN, 2011, pp. 4, 8, 9. (Preprint #WP/2011/288).

On Similarities Between Phenomena of the Quantum and Genetic World


The article is dedicated to two world-famous scientists, the founder of Soviet genetics and experimental biology, Nikolay Konstantinovich Koltsov (1872–1940) and his brilliant student, the founder of chemical mutagenesis, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lenin Prize laureate, Nobel Prize nominee (1962), member-correspondent of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Iosif Abramovich Rapoport (1912–1990). Both made a huge contribution to convergence and blending of different sciences, bridging living and non-living nature. Just over 120 years ago, two great theories emerged — the quantum and the gene one. Both theories played a revolutionary role in natural science, having established two fundamental features of the material world — discreteness and discontinuity. Speaking at the same time in the language of discontinuity, quantum physics and genetics throughout the entire 20th century were following parallel courses, enriching themselves with new facts and ideas. The laws they discovered have broken many ideas on the “good old world”, where phenomenological interconnections dominate, have reduced the essence of all things and phenomena to combinatorics and the atoms and genes activities, have given the keys to controlling many natural processes. Dynamic nature of the microworld objects’ research would continue in the 21st century, since many unsolved problems related to human needs remain in the field of high energy physics, genetics, molecular biology and nanotechnologies.