The "Economic Strategies" journal

2022 #1. Unknown Known




Development of the Strategic Management System in the Context of Digitalization

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.20-33

The introduction of digital technologies has a significant impact on the development of the entire public administration system and its most important element — the strategic planning system. Modern digital intelligent technologies and the work of government bodies based on the advanced achievements of management science and the unity of methodological approaches make it possible to raise the strategic planning system to a qualitatively new level. The key to success is the coordinated development of both the public administration system itself and the nationwide information and control systems. The authors, based on the analysis of the content of strategic management activities and the information used for this activity, formulated general approaches to the choice of information technologies to ensure the implementation of the stages of strategic  management.

Источники:

1. Putin V.V. Zasedanie Soveta Bezopasnosti 27 sentyabrya 2021 g. [Meeting of the Security Council on September 27, 2021. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/66777.

2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 8 noyabrya 2021 g. N 633 “Ob utverzhdenii Osnov gosudarstvennoi politiki v sfere strategicheskogo planirovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 8, 2011 No. 633 “On Approval of the Fundamentals of State Policy in the Sphere of Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”]. Garant, available at: https://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/402915816/

3. Kudryashova E.V. Informatsionnye tekhnologii dlya strategicheskogo planirovaniya v Rossii: etapy razvitiya i perspektivy [Information Technology for Strategic Planning in Russia: Development Stages and Prospects]. Gosudarstvennaya vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2021, no 2, pp. 36–40.

4. Andreeva Z.K., Baryshnikov P.Yu., Zhurenkov D.A., et al. Strategicheskoe tselepolaganie v situatsionnykh tsentrakh razvitiya [Strategic Goal-setting in Situational Development Centers]. Pod red. V.E. Lepskogo, A.N. Raikova. Moscow, Kogito-Tsentr, 2018, 320 p.

5. Kupryashin G.L., Shramm A.E. O printsipakh datatsentrizma, setetsentrizma i komandnotsentrizma v kontekste informatizatsii gosudarstvennogo upravleniya [On Principles of Data, Network, and Chain-Of-Command Centricity in the Context of Digital Governance]. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie. Elektronnyi vestnik, vyp. 76, 2019, October.

6. Zatsarinnyi A.A., Il’in N.I., Kolin K.K., et al. Situatsionnye tsentry razvitiya v polisub”ektnoi srede [Situational Development Centers in a Multi-subject Environment]. Problemy upravleniya, 2017, no 5, pp. 31–42.

7. Kaplan R., Norton D. Strategicheskie karty. Transformatsiya nematerial’nykh aktivov v material’nye rezul’taty [Strategic Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Results]. Moscow, Olimp-Biznes, 2005, 512 p.

8. Kaplan R., Norton D. Sbalansirovannaya sistema pokazatelei. Ot strategii k deistviyu [The Balanced Scorecard. From Strategy to Action]. Moscow, Olimp-Biznes, 2017, 320 p.

Digital Technologies of Public Audit

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.34-39

The article dwells on the problems of organizing state audit based on digital technologies. The concept of digital register and digital platforms is proposed, the author also describes system and software solutions that allow to provide continuous audit and, on its basis, adaptive management of public resources based on audit data in the economic-mathematical balance model that characterizes intersectoral production relationships in the country’s economy.

Источники:

1. Iskusstvennyi intellekt v audite: snimaem nalet mistiki [Artificial Intelligence in Audit: Removing the Mystique]. GAAP.RU, available at: https://gaap.ru/articles/Iskusstvennyy_intellekt_v_audite_snimaem_nalet_mistiki/

2. Blokchein v mire audita. Udastsya li proektu Auditchain proizvesti revolyutsiyu na rynke finansovoi otchetnosti i audita? [Blockchain in the World of Audit. Will the Auditchain Project Succeed in Revolutionizing the Financial Reporting and Audit Market?]. ClickChain, available at: https://clickchain.ru/2018/07/31/blokchejn-v-mire-audita/

3. Schetnaya palata Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: http://audit.gov.ru/about/

4. Schetnaya palata pereidet na tsifrovoi audit v techenie trekh let [Accounts Chamber will Switch to Digital Audit Within Three Years]. TASS, 2018, August, 2, available at: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/5423538.

5. Tsifrovoi audit — budushchee Schetnoi palaty [Digital Audit is the Future of the Accounts Chamber]. Schetnaya palata RF, 2019, October, 11, available at: http://audit.gov.ru/press_center/news/38884.

6. Tsifrovye tekhnologii v bukhgalterskoi i auditorskoi deyatel’nosti [Digital Technologies in Accounting and Auditing]. BizEcucate, available at: https://bizeducate.com/11/2018/tsifrovye-tehnologii-v-buhgalterskoj-i-auditorskoj-deyatelnosti/

Strategic Planning and Industrial Policy at the Current Stage of the Cyclic World Economic Development

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.40-51

The article substantiates appropriateness of the network industrial policy to technological and socio-economic challenges of the modern era of the VI technological order (the second stage of the third technological megacycle). Given the fact that at the present stage technological and sectoral priorities of the national economic development can be formulated more clearly (compared to the previous stage of the technological megacycle), one of the key elements of industrial policy is strategic planning. It is concluded that in Russia since the 2000s there has been a process of establishing a national system of strategic planning, accelerated after the 2014 events. At the same time, its contradictory nature is shown, which determines the low effectiveness of the strategic documents implementation. This, in its turn, significantly reduces the probability that in the XXI century Russia would be able to become one of the world economic leaders.

Источники:

1. Tolkachev S.A., Teplyakov A.Yu. Kontseptsiya otraslevogo rasprostraneniya bazisnykh tekhnologii: novyi tekhnologicheskii megatsikl [The Concept of Sectoral Diffusion of Basic Technologies: New Technological Megacycle]. Ekonomist, 2020, no 1, pp. 25–35.

2. Tolkachev S.A., Teplyakov A.Yu. Tekhnologicheskii megatsikl i promyshlennaya politika [Technological Megacycle and Industrial Policy]. Ekonomist, 2021, no 1, pp. 43–54.

3. Glaz’ev S.Yu. Mirokhozyaistvennye uklady v global’nom ekonomicheskom razvitii [World Economic Orders in Global Economic Development]. Ekonomika i matematicheskie metody, 2016, no 2, pp. 3–29.

4. Aivazov A.E., Belikov V.A., Romanova A. Evolyutsiya mirovoi denezhno-valyutnoi sistemy v protsesse smeny mirokhozyaistvennykh ukladov [Evolution of the World Monetary System in the Process of Changing World Economic Orders]. Ekonomist, 2019, no 7, pp. 40–53.

5. Tolkachev S.A., Teplyakov A.Yu. Kontseptsiya tsiklicheskoi posledovatel’nosti rasprostraneniya bazisnykh tekhnologii v ekonomike i ontologicheskaya obuslovlennost’ teorii industrial’nogo obshchestva [The Concept of Cyclic Sequence of the Basic Technologies Diffusion in the Economy and Ontological Conditionality of the Industrial Society Theories]. Ekonomicheskoe vozrozhdenie Rossii, 2019, no 4, pp. 19–36.

6. Tolkachev S.A. Setevaya promyshlennaya politika v epokhu novoi industrial’noi revolyutsii [Network Industrial Policy in the Era of the New Industrial Revolution]. Zhurnal NEA, 2018, no 3, pp. 155–162.

7. Kontseptsiya sotsial’no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossii do 2020 goda [The Concept of Socio-economic Development of Russia until 2020]. Konsul’tantPlyus, available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_82134/28c7f9e359e8af09d7244d8033c66928fa27e527/

8. Strategiya-2020, available at: http://2020strategy.ru/

9. Kontseptsiya razvitiya Rossii do 2020 goda okazalas’ nevypolnimoi. Pochemu razoshlis’ traektorii natsional’nykh tselei 2008 goda i fakticheskogo razvitiya strany [The Concept of Russia’s Development until 2020 Turned Out to be Unfeasible. Why Trajectories of the National Goals of 2008 and of Actual Development of the Country have Diverged]. RBK, 2019, November, 2, available at: https://www.rbc.ru/economics/02/11/2019/5db946fb9a794742bc0d5b68.

Necessity of Applying Methodology for Selecting Strategic Investment Initiatives in the Framework of Measures for Integrated Planning of Subjects of the Russian Federation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.52-57

The article discusses development of a methodology for selecting strategic investment initiatives, its purpose, as well as the basic concepts used herein. The principles of selecting strategic investment initiatives for the subject of the Federation are identified. In conclusion, the author provides a response to the question on the role of ecosystems in changing technological and world economic patterns, as well as information on the ways to access measures of state support for originators of strategic investment initiatives.

Источники:

1. Federal’nyi zakon ot 28 iyunya 2014 g. N 172-FZ “O strategicheskom planirovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Federal Law No. 172-FZ of June 28, 2014 “On Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/38630.

2. Kontseptsiya dolgosrochnogo sotsial’no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2020 goda (utv. rasporyazheniem Pravitel’stva RF ot 17 noyabrya 2008 g. N 1662-r) [The concept of long-term socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020 (approved by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation dated No. 1662-r dated November 17, 2008]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Pravitel’stva RF, available at: http://static.government.ru/media/files/aaooFKSheDLiM99HEcyrygytfmGzrnAX.pdf.

3. Prognoz sotsial’no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii na period do 2036 goda (utv. Pravitel’stvom Rossiiskoi Federatsii 22 noyabrya 2018 g. (protokol N 34, razdel II, punkt 2)) [Forecast of socio-economic development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2036 (approved by the Government of the Russian Federation on November 22, 2018 (Protocol No. 34, Section II, paragraph 2))]. Sait Ministerstva ekonomicheskogo razvitiya RF, available at: https://www.economy.gov.ru/material/file/a5f3add5deab665b344b47a8786dc902/prognoz2036.pdf.

4. Prikaz Ministerstva ekonomicheskogo razvitiya RF ot 23 marta 2017 g. N 132 “Ob utverzhdenii Metodicheskikh rekomendatsii po razrabotke i korrektirovke strategii sotsial’no-ekonomicheskogo razvitiya sub”ekta Rossiiskoi Federatsii i plana meropriyatii po ee realizatsii” [Order of the Ministry of Economic Development of the Russian Federation No. 132 dated March 23, 2017 “On approval of Methodological  Recommendations for the development and adjustment of the strategy of socio-economic development of the subject of the Russian Federation and the action plan for its implementation”]. Sait Ministerstva ekonomicheskogo razvitiya RF, available at: https://www.economy.gov.ru/material/file/3b00b259b4cccebf36dd63177813aa7a/Prikaz132.pdf.

5. Mityaev D.A., Matchenko E.A. Obosnovanie neobkhodimosti realizatsii strategicheskikh investitsionnykh initsiativ v sub”ektakh Rossiiskoi Federatsii s uchetom razvitiya tekhnologii chetvertoi industrial’noi revolyutsii [Justification of the need to implement strategic investment initiatives in the subjects of the Russian Federation, taking into account the development of technologies of the Fourth Industrial Revolution]. Voprosy novoi ekonomiki, 2019, no 3(51), pp. 18–27.

On the Formation of Common Markets for Oil and Petroleum Products of the Eurasian Economic Union

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.58-71

This article is devoted to the activities on the formation of common markets for oil and petroleum products of the Eurasian Economic Union. At the same time, these common markets are considered by the author as a factor in ensuring the interests of the national economies of the member states of the Eurasian Economic Union, contributing to increasing the level of economic integration of the member states. It is noted that relations currently in the oil sector within the Union are carried out on a bilateral basis within the framework of intergovernmental agreements. Certain issues of ensuring energy security are considered, it is noted that the key goal of ensuring the energy security of the Union should be, first of all, maintaining the energy resource base of each Member State and the Union as a whole.

Источники:

1. Dogovor o Evraziiskom ekonomicheskom soyuze ot 29 maya 2014 g. [Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union of May 29, 2014]. Ministerstvo ekonomicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: https://www.economy.gov.ru/material/file/2bbbbf9ae33443d533d855bf2225707e/Dogovor_ees.pdf.

2. Kontseptsiya formirovaniya obshchikh rynkov nefti i nefteproduktov Soyuza, utverzhdennaya Resheniem Vysshego Evraziiskogo ekonomicheskogo soveta ot 31 maya 2016 g. N 8 [The Concept of Forming Common Markets for Oil and Oil Products of the Union, Approved by Decision of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council Dated May 31, 2016 No. 8]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/456006395.

3. Programma formirovaniya obshchikh rynkov nefti I nefteproduktov Soyuza, utverzhdennaya Resheniem Vysshego Evraziiskogo ekonomicheskogo soveta ot 6 dekabrya 2018 g. N 23 [The Program for Forming Common Markets for Oil and Oil Products of the Union, Approved by Decision of the Supreme Eurasian Economic Council Dated December 6, 2018 No. 23]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/551866200.

4. Zakrevskii V.A. Obshchii rynok nefti EAES kak universal’nyi integrator [The EAEU Common Oil Market as a Universal Integrator]. NEFT’ i kapital. Analiticheskii zhurnal, 2021, no 9, September, pp. 36–40.

5. Glikman O.V., Nazarova A.U. Mezhdunarodno-pravovye osnovy energeticheskogo sotrudnichestva gosudarstv — chlenov Evraziiskogo ekonomicheskogo soyuza [International Legal Framework for Energy Cooperation Between the Member States of the Eurasian Economic Union]. Pravo i upravlenie. XXI vek, 2020, no 1, pp. 28–35.

6. Evraziiskii ekonomicheskii soyuz: tsifry i fakty. 2020. Energetika i infrastruktura [Eurasian Economic Union: Figures and Facts. 2020. Energy and Infrastructure]. Evraziiskaya ekonomicheskaya komissiya, 2020, pp. 23–24, available at: http://www.eurasiancommission.org/ru/Documents/3264_ЕЭК_ЦИФ%20-%202020_энергетикаИинфраструктура.pdf.

7. Romanova V.V. Problemy mezhdunarodno-pravovoi unifikatsii v sfere energetiki i garmonizatsii zakonodatel’stva gosudarstv — uchastnikov mezhdunarodnykh energeticheskikh rynkov na primere evraziiskoi ekonomicheskoi integratsii [Problems of International Legal Unification in the Field of Energy and Harmonization of the Legislation of States Participating in International Energy Markets on the Example of Eurasian Economic Integration]. Pravovoi energeticheskii forum, 2015, no 3, pp. 12–18.

Strategies for Business Internationalization of Chinese State-Owned Oil and Gas Companies

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.72-79

The article is devoted to the analysis of the specifics of the business international expansion of large Chinese state-owned companies in the oil and gas sector: China National Oil and Gas Corporation (CNPC), China Petrochemical Corporation (SINOPEC), China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC). The article examines the strategic guidelines of the companies, the factors influencing the strategies, formats and forms of expansion, regional specifics of business internationalization, trends in the development of activities in foreign markets. The problems of specialization and business diversification of the studied companies are considered. Special attention is paid to the role of the state in the processes of international expansion of Chinese oil and gas companies.

Источники:

1. Bhattacharyya S. China and the Global Energy Crisis: Development and Prospects for China’s Oil and Natural Gas. International Journal of Energy Sector Management, 2017, Vol. 1, N 2, pp. 56–61.

2. Shell sells shale stake to China. International Gas Report, 2012, February, 13.

3. PetroChina snaps up remainder of AOSC’s MacKay River project. The Oil and Gas Journal, 2018, January, 16, pp. 71–75.

4. Devon and Sinopec team up for five-play venture. Upstream, 2019, January, 6, pp. 32–37.

5. Neftyanaya i neftepererabatyvayushchaya promyshlennost’ Kitaya [Oil and Refining Industry in China]. TsDU TEK, 2020, March, 30, available at: http://www.cdu.ru/tek_russia/articles/1/725/

6. Ghemawat P. Strategy and the Business Landscape. 3rd ed., Prentice Hall, 2010.

Expertise of Solutions in the Public Administration System

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.80-91

The purpose of the study is to analyze the expert activity in the Russian Federation, with the receipt of basic recommendations for the deployment of a system of state expertise. The research methodology is a comparative, retrospective analysis, a method of taxonomy of management problems and the solution of poorly structured problems. The application of the indicated methodology allowed us to come to the main result, which boils down to the fact that in Russia expert activity at the state level has significant limitations for many reasons, which reduces the effectiveness of analytical management. This constitutes a condition for the failure of many programs and doctrines, namely strategic documents for development until 2020, and also blocks the formation of a new model of economic growth at the level of the state policy pursued for a decade. In addition, ill-considered reforms in education, science, and the administrative sphere also confirm the existence of significant gaps in the field of analytical public administration. Overcoming the listed problems is seen in the deployment of a system of state expertise on the basis of the relevant Federal Law with the leading role of the Academy of Sciences, since expertise involves exploratory, scientific activities, multivariate analysis and predictive assessments. In the course of the analysis, including the drafts of the Regulation on the support of expert activities in the executive authorities of Russia, developed at the Academy of Sciences, it is nevertheless proposed to abandon the public status of expert councils, as well as to change approaches in the field of recommendations and consideration of the examinations   themselves. Also proposed are corrections of some rules for voting on expertise and the level of responsibility of the experts themselves for their conclusions, including the responsibility of the authorities regarding the consideration of expert opinions. Thus, in the course of the study, he proposes to launch a large-scale work on the formation of a system of state expertise that functions at all levels of management with budgetary resources allocated for this.

Источники:

1. Chichkanov V.P., Sukharev O.S. Razvit ie Rossiiskoi akademii nauk: reshenie organizatsionnykh zadach [Development of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Solution of Organizational Tasks]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 3, pp. 120–129. DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.177.2021.120-129.

2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 4 fevralya 2021 g. N 68 “Ob otsenke effektivnosti deyatel’nosti vysshikh dolzhnostnykh lits (rukovoditelei vysshikh ispolnitel’nykh organov gosudarstvennoi vlasti) sub”ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i deyatel’nosti organov ispolnitel’noi vlasti sub”ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [On the Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Activities of Senior Officials (Heads of the Highest Executive Bodies of State Power) of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation and the Activities of the Executive Bodies of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of February 4, 2021 No. 68]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF. URL: http://kremlin.ru/acts/ news/64970.

Parametric Monitoring of Defence Industry Organizations as a Strategic Management Tool

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.92-97

The article proposes an approach to developing strategic management decisions at the parent companies’ level of defence industry groups regarding human resources development. Identification of interrelations between the decisions taken and their consequences is carried out based on analysis of changes in the rank statistics of the enterprises’ key indicators. Using the data on the age distribution of employees of JSC Concern VKO Almaz-Antey, the need to adjust the average age indicator is substantiated. Particular attention is paid to improving the calculation of the parameter of labor productivity within the research organizations of the defence industry.

Источники:

 

1. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Eroshin S.E. Otsenka effektivnosti deyatel’nosti predpriyatii oboronnogo kontserna [Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Defence Concern Enterprises]. Elektronnaya promyshlennost’, 2005, no. 3, pp. 66–73.

2. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Eroshin S.E. Metod postroeniya reitingovoi sistemy otsenok [Method of Constructing the Rating System of Assessments]. Vestnik mashinostroeniya, 2007, no. 9, pp. 73–76.

3. Eroshin S.E., Kozlov G.V. Otsenka effektivnosti deyatel’nosti issledovatelei v razlichnykh sektorakh nauki [Evaluation of Researchers Efficiency in Various Sectors of Science]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2016, no. 2, pp. 116–123.

4. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Kutuzov I.V. Model’nyi analiz vozrastnoi dinamiki kadrovoi struktury predpriyatii oboronno-promyshlennogo kompleksa [Model Analysis of the Age Dynamics of the Personnel Structure at the Enterprises of the Military-industrial Complex]. Promyshlennaya politika v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2008, no. 6.

5. Konoval’chik A.P., Eroshin S.E. Obrazovatel’nyi aspekt tsifrovizatsii [Educational Aspect of Digitalization]. Innovatsii, 2021, no. 2, pp. 11–15.

6. Eroshin S.E., Kozlov G.V. Analiz sistemy upravleniya nauchnymi issledovaniyami [Analysis of the Management System of Scientific Research]. Innovatsii, 2020, no. 6, pp. 42–45.

7. Eroshin S.E., Klimentov G.A. Formirovanie sistemy pokazatelei effektivnosti NIOKR [Establishing a System of R&D Performance Indicators]. Innovatsii, 2020, no. 11, pp. 26–29.

Transaction Costs in Development and Creation of New Weapons and Military Equipment and the Problems of Their Diversification

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.98-105

The article dwells on the issues of the production process from the point of view of the life cycle. Factors are proposed, consideration of which will allow to minimize transaction costs of producing new and upgrading existing products. The author articulates the features of domestic production, the progress of which should contribute to the industry development.

Источники:

1. GOST R 15.000–2016 “Sistema razrabotki i postanovki produktsii na proizvodstvo. Osnovnye polozheniya” [GOST R 15.000–2016 “System of Product Development and Launching into Production. Basic Provisions”]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200141161.

2. GOST RV 15.004–2004 “Sistema razrabotki i postavki produktsii na proizvodstva. Voennaya tekhnika. Stadii zhiznennogo tsikla izdelii i materialov” [GOST RV 15.004-2004 “System of Product Development and Delivery to Production Facilities. Military Equipment. Life Cycle Stages of Products and Materials”]. VII SFU, available at: https://vii.sfu-kras.ru/images/Gost1.pdf.

3. GOST R 56135–2014 “Upravlenie zhiznennym tsiklom produktsii voennogo naznacheniya. Obshchie polozheniya” [GOST R 56135–2014 “Life Cycle Management of Military Products. General Provisions”]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/1200115460.

4. K tsifre gotov? Otsenka adaptivnosti VTK Rossii k realiyam tsifrovoi ekonomiki [Ready for Digital? Evaluating Adaptability of the Russian MTC to the Digital Economy Realities]. Moscow, Institut ekonomicheskikh strategii, 2018, 61 p.

5. Novaya tekhnologicheskaya revolyutsiya: vyzovy i vozmozhnosti dlya Rossii: Ekspertno-analiticheskii doklad [New Technological Revolution: Challenges and Opportunities for Russia: Expert-analytical Report]. Pod nauch. ruk. V.N. Knyaginina. Moscow, Tsentr strategicheskikh razrabotok, 2017, 136 p.

6. The future of productivity — preliminary version. OECD, 2015, p. 83, available at: https://www.oecd.org/economy/growth/OECD-2015-The-futureof-productivity-book.pdf.

7. Tsifrovaya ekonomika: global’nye trendy i praktika rossiiskogo biznesa: Doklad Natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo universiteta “Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki” [Digital Economy: Global Trends and Russian Business Practice: Report of the National Research University Higher School of Economics]. Moscow, 2017, 121 p.

8. Ivanov V.V., Malinetskii G.G. Tsifrovaya ekonomika: mify, real’nost’, perspektiva [Digital Economy: Myths, Reality, Prospects]. Moscow, RAN, 2017, 64 p.

9. Moiseev N.N. Matematika stavit eksperiment [Mathematics does Experiment]. Moscow, Nauka, 1979.

Polymorphic Gamma-Scale of Economic Development

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.106-111

The dynamic series of compound interest always contains transcendental numbers, which the author uses to construct the dual functions of polymorphic growth and development. These gamma functions quantize geoeconomic space and time in the form of historical stages of development. They also reveal dialectical pairs of gamma quanta of the core of civilization and lambda quanta of the leading countries. The author proposes a gamma scale for measuring the level of development of national economies.

Источники:

1. Ponomarev V. Antropologicheskaya politekonomiya: Kontseptsiya teorii samorazvitiya [Anthropological Political Economy: The Concept of the Theory of Self-Development]. Saarbryuken, LAP, 2013.

2. VVP na dushu naseleniya v 1990–2020 gg. (Vsemirnyi bank; PPS, doll.) [GDP per Capita 1990–2020]. SVSPB.net, available at: https://svspb.net/danmark/vvp-stran-na-dushu-naselenija-wb.php.