Transaction Costs in Development and Creation of New Weapons and Military Equipment and the Problems of Their Diversification


The article dwells on the issues of the production process from the point of view of the life cycle. Factors are proposed, consideration of which will allow to minimize transaction costs of producing new and upgrading existing products. The author articulates the features of domestic production, the progress of which should contribute to the industry development.


1. GOST R 15.000–2016 “Sistema razrabotki i postanovki produktsii na proizvodstvo. Osnovnye polozheniya” [GOST R 15.000–2016 “System of Product Development and Launching into Production. Basic Provisions”]. Kodeks, available at:

2. GOST RV 15.004–2004 “Sistema razrabotki i postavki produktsii na proizvodstva. Voennaya tekhnika. Stadii zhiznennogo tsikla izdelii i materialov” [GOST RV 15.004-2004 “System of Product Development and Delivery to Production Facilities. Military Equipment. Life Cycle Stages of Products and Materials”]. VII SFU, available at:

3. GOST R 56135–2014 “Upravlenie zhiznennym tsiklom produktsii voennogo naznacheniya. Obshchie polozheniya” [GOST R 56135–2014 “Life Cycle Management of Military Products. General Provisions”]. Kodeks, available at:

4. K tsifre gotov? Otsenka adaptivnosti VTK Rossii k realiyam tsifrovoi ekonomiki [Ready for Digital? Evaluating Adaptability of the Russian MTC to the Digital Economy Realities]. Moscow, Institut ekonomicheskikh strategii, 2018, 61 p.

5. Novaya tekhnologicheskaya revolyutsiya: vyzovy i vozmozhnosti dlya Rossii: Ekspertno-analiticheskii doklad [New Technological Revolution: Challenges and Opportunities for Russia: Expert-analytical Report]. Pod nauch. ruk. V.N. Knyaginina. Moscow, Tsentr strategicheskikh razrabotok, 2017, 136 p.

6. The future of productivity — preliminary version. OECD, 2015, p. 83, available at:

7. Tsifrovaya ekonomika: global’nye trendy i praktika rossiiskogo biznesa: Doklad Natsional’nogo issledovatel’skogo universiteta “Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki” [Digital Economy: Global Trends and Russian Business Practice: Report of the National Research University Higher School of Economics]. Moscow, 2017, 121 p.

8. Ivanov V.V., Malinetskii G.G. Tsifrovaya ekonomika: mify, real’nost’, perspektiva [Digital Economy: Myths, Reality, Prospects]. Moscow, RAN, 2017, 64 p.

9. Moiseev N.N. Matematika stavit eksperiment [Mathematics does Experiment]. Moscow, Nauka, 1979.

Parametric Monitoring of Defence Industry Organizations as a Strategic Management Tool


The article proposes an approach to developing strategic management decisions at the parent companies’ level of defence industry groups regarding human resources development. Identification of interrelations between the decisions taken and their consequences is carried out based on analysis of changes in the rank statistics of the enterprises’ key indicators. Using the data on the age distribution of employees of JSC Concern VKO Almaz-Antey, the need to adjust the average age indicator is substantiated. Particular attention is paid to improving the calculation of the parameter of labor productivity within the research organizations of the defence industry.



1. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Eroshin S.E. Otsenka effektivnosti deyatel’nosti predpriyatii oboronnogo kontserna [Evaluating the Effectiveness of the Defence Concern Enterprises]. Elektronnaya promyshlennost’, 2005, no. 3, pp. 66–73.

2. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Eroshin S.E. Metod postroeniya reitingovoi sistemy otsenok [Method of Constructing the Rating System of Assessments]. Vestnik mashinostroeniya, 2007, no. 9, pp. 73–76.

3. Eroshin S.E., Kozlov G.V. Otsenka effektivnosti deyatel’nosti issledovatelei v razlichnykh sektorakh nauki [Evaluation of Researchers Efficiency in Various Sectors of Science]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2016, no. 2, pp. 116–123.

4. Men’shchikov V.V., Kozlov G.V., Kutuzov I.V. Model’nyi analiz vozrastnoi dinamiki kadrovoi struktury predpriyatii oboronno-promyshlennogo kompleksa [Model Analysis of the Age Dynamics of the Personnel Structure at the Enterprises of the Military-industrial Complex]. Promyshlennaya politika v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2008, no. 6.

5. Konoval’chik A.P., Eroshin S.E. Obrazovatel’nyi aspekt tsifrovizatsii [Educational Aspect of Digitalization]. Innovatsii, 2021, no. 2, pp. 11–15.

6. Eroshin S.E., Kozlov G.V. Analiz sistemy upravleniya nauchnymi issledovaniyami [Analysis of the Management System of Scientific Research]. Innovatsii, 2020, no. 6, pp. 42–45.

7. Eroshin S.E., Klimentov G.A. Formirovanie sistemy pokazatelei effektivnosti NIOKR [Establishing a System of R&D Performance Indicators]. Innovatsii, 2020, no. 11, pp. 26–29.

Expertise of Solutions in the Public Administration System


The purpose of the study is to analyze the expert activity in the Russian Federation, with the receipt of basic recommendations for the deployment of a system of state expertise. The research methodology is a comparative, retrospective analysis, a method of taxonomy of management problems and the solution of poorly structured problems. The application of the indicated methodology allowed us to come to the main result, which boils down to the fact that in Russia expert activity at the state level has significant limitations for many reasons, which reduces the effectiveness of analytical management. This constitutes a condition for the failure of many programs and doctrines, namely strategic documents for development until 2020, and also blocks the formation of a new model of economic growth at the level of the state policy pursued for a decade. In addition, ill-considered reforms in education, science, and the administrative sphere also confirm the existence of significant gaps in the field of analytical public administration. Overcoming the listed problems is seen in the deployment of a system of state expertise on the basis of the relevant Federal Law with the leading role of the Academy of Sciences, since expertise involves exploratory, scientific activities, multivariate analysis and predictive assessments. In the course of the analysis, including the drafts of the Regulation on the support of expert activities in the executive authorities of Russia, developed at the Academy of Sciences, it is nevertheless proposed to abandon the public status of expert councils, as well as to change approaches in the field of recommendations and consideration of the examinations   themselves. Also proposed are corrections of some rules for voting on expertise and the level of responsibility of the experts themselves for their conclusions, including the responsibility of the authorities regarding the consideration of expert opinions. Thus, in the course of the study, he proposes to launch a large-scale work on the formation of a system of state expertise that functions at all levels of management with budgetary resources allocated for this.


1. Chichkanov V.P., Sukharev O.S. Razvit ie Rossiiskoi akademii nauk: reshenie organizatsionnykh zadach [Development of the Russian Academy of Sciences: Solution of Organizational Tasks]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 3, pp. 120–129. DOI:

2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 4 fevralya 2021 g. N 68 “Ob otsenke effektivnosti deyatel’nosti vysshikh dolzhnostnykh lits (rukovoditelei vysshikh ispolnitel’nykh organov gosudarstvennoi vlasti) sub”ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii i deyatel’nosti organov ispolnitel’noi vlasti sub”ektov Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [On the Assessment of the Effectiveness of the Activities of Senior Officials (Heads of the Highest Executive Bodies of State Power) of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation and the Activities of the Executive Bodies of the Constituent Entities of the Russian Federation: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of February 4, 2021 No. 68]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF. URL: news/64970.

National Security of Russia

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.6-23

The article is continuing the research “Modelling and Assessment of Russia’s National Power”, dedicated to calculating the index of national power, which is currently the most informative and popular indicator in the world that integrally characterizes the aggregate potential of a particular country and allows at the same time to compare the level of its power and socio-economic development with the other countries’ level. The research results were published in the “Economic Strategies” magazine No. 2 for 2020. [1].

If the national power of the state, in fact, determines its potential capabilities and mainly gross indicators are used for the

calculation, then the national security indicators are calculated on the basis of normalized values (as a rule, per capita) and witness the development level of one or another component of the country’s socio-ecologic and economic system, as well as efficiency of using the existing potential. It should be reminded that in terms of the National Integral Strength Index, which includes many components, Russia ranks fourth in the world, slightly behind India. In this article, using the methods of multivariate statistical analysis, we’ll calculate the national security indicators of the UN member states, also defining the position of Russia, but in addition, we’ll also estimate the threshold values for all the factors of national security considered in the work. In the last part of the paper, we’ll give a medium-term forecast of national security

Priority Directions of Development of Science, Technologies and Technics in Interests of Defence and State Security

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.24-33

The paper presents the results of determining the priority directions of development of science, technologies and technics in interests of defence and state security, based on open sources of information, methods and tools of forecasting of development of science, equipment and technologies used in the formation of promising scientific and technological directions of development of military-industrial complex (defense industry). The authors analyze documents that determine the priorities of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, show the criteria for selecting a list of strategic priority areas for the development of science, technology and technology, and consider the methodology for substantiating promising areas of scientific and technological development of the defense industry. The paper shows that scientific and technical forecasting is an integral part of the formation of policy in the field of defense and security of the state. They are formed in close connection with critical technologies approved by the President of the Russian Federation. The authors reveal in detail the key trends in the development of science, technology and engineering that ensure the formation of the scientific and technological Foundation for the creation of promising samples of VVST

Modeling and Assessing the National Strength of Russia

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.168.2020.6-19

The article analyzes the world experience of assessing national strength, which is the most informative and popular indicator characterizing the combined national security potential of a particular country, allowing to compare the level of its military power and socio-economic development with other countries. Modeling and evaluating the national strength indicator is extremely important for adjusting strategic documents related to the long-term development of a country, as well as to its foreign policy. In many countries, the national security indicator is assessed by narrow circle of experts or through averaged survey results from a wider range of respondents. The disadvantage of this approach lies in subjectivity, and eventually, in an unreliable estimate. The authors provide a scientifically based methodology for modeling and assessing national power. In forming the components of the national strength integral indicator, key target indicators are used, which are established in the strategic planning documents of Russia. It should be also noted that they contain indicators that are not used by foreign researchers (for example, indicators related to the territory, population, industrial production, energy resources and many others). Results of calculating the integral indicators of national strength, obtained through convolution using factor analysis of group indices, show that at the moment Russia is a world leader (at the level of 3-4 places among 193 countries — members of the UN)

Relationship of the Economic Basis and Political Superstructure of Modern Russia

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.168.2020.20-31

Economic basis existing in the Russian Federation was formed in the 1990s, but it was developing and finally took shape in the early 2000s. It was the political struggle for its implementation that determined the form, structure and nature of the modern political superstructure. As shown by the experience of recent years, the formed basis and superstructure are not intended to carry out in-depth socio-economic reforms in Russia. At the same time, Western total Jesuit Russophobia, the growing power and the number of global challenges, as well as insufficient socio-economic development of the Russian Federation, necessitate fundamental changes. In this regard, the authors provide justification for the need and explore possible ways to modernize the existing political superstructure in the Russian Federation in order to create conditions that provide a powerful and effective Russia’s response to the global challenges of the nearest future

Economic and Mathematical Modeling of Russia’s Economic Security in the Period Under Sanctions

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.168.2020.32-39

For the study, the time period of introducing economic sanctions against the Russian Federation was selected. In consideration are taken the data of Rosstat in terms of finding the values of indicators of our state’s economic security (2013–2017). A correlation and regression analysis of this system, consisting of 15 indicators, was carried out. An economic-mathematical model of the sanctions impact on the economic security of Russia was compiled. To solve this problem, the authors used a correlation-regression analysis, the regression equation was found and statistical significance of the constructed model was substantiated. The findings were recommended to specialists in the sphere of improving the state’s economic security

If the Stars are Lit Up, It Means That Someone Needs It

#3. Attraction of Diversity
If the Stars are Lit Up, It Means That Someone Needs It

Even in conditions of reduced funding for scientific research the staff of academic institutions do not give up and do not sit idle. This is proved by personal example of the president of the Russian Academy of Sciences academician V.E. Fortov, founder of the scientific direction “dynamic physics of nonideal plasma”, studying strong shock waves and extreme states of substances. Such experiments are not at all cheap, but absolutely necessary for our country’s development. Special columnist of the “ES” magazine Natalia Leskova talks to Vladimir Evgenievich Fortov about why this is so and what the fundamental science is needed for.

New Manhattan Project of Planetary Protection

#3. Attraction of Diversity
New Manhattan Project of Planetary Protection

The article presents results of modeling the consequences of a large asteroid’s catastrophic collision with the Earth. They confirm the necessity of concrete steps to create a means of protection against the asteroid-comet danger that threatens the very existence of mankind. Undertaken analysis of the situation in the field of space threat prevention proves that alongside with ensuring national and international security, they will contribute to developing many spheres of the state and humanity activities, including defense, civil defense and protection, science, technology, economics, politics, etc. Russian project of creating an international planetary protection system “Citadel” can serve as a basis for creating means of planetary protection. This is confirmed by inclusion of the Citadel project in the New Manhattan Project, proposed by the World Federation of Scientists.