Prospects for Russian-Turkmen Cooperation at the Current Stage

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.188.2023.36-43

The article analyzes historical development of the Russian-Turkmenistan relations. Multi-vector nature and flexibility in the development of a strategic partnership with Turkmenistan is substantiated. The author concludes that Russian-Turkmenistan relations should not be limited only to cooperation in the gas sector, but should develop dynamically towards formation of transport and logistics corridors, development of the tourist industry and communications modernization.


1. Parizhskaya rech’ generala v ego kvartire na ryu Pent’er pered serbskimi studentami “Zavety slavyanstvu” [“Testaments to the Slavs”, Parisian Speech of the General in his Apartment on Rue Pentier to Serbian Students]., available at:

2. Mezhgosudarstvennye otnosheniya Rossii i Turkmenii [Interstate Relations between Russia and Turkmenistan]. RIA “Novosti”, 2022, 10 iyunya, available at:

3. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020. 69th edition, available at:

4. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020. 71th edition, available at:

5. Vyakhirev gotov k kompromissu [Vyakhirev is Ready to Compromise]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 1999, 18 dekabrya, available at:

6. V Ashkhabade sostoyalsya shestoi Kaspiiskii sammit [The Sixth Caspian Summit was Held in Ashgabat]. Rossiiskaya gazeta, 2022, 29 iyunya, available at:

7. Kaspiiskoe sotrudnichestvo kak sposob resheniya ekonomicheskikh problem Turkmenistana [Caspian Cooperation as a Way to Solve Turkmenistan’s Economic Problems]. CABAR, available at:

8., available at:

9. Turkmenistan prizyvaet strany Kaspiya k rasshireniyu transportnogo sotrudnichestva [Turkmenistan Calls on the Caspian Countries to Expand Transport Cooperation]. Bol’shaya Aziya, 2022, 7 oktyabrya, available at:

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11. Cherez mezhdunarodnyi port Turkmenbashi (Turkmenistan) eksportirovano bolee 6,5 mln tonn gruzov [More than 6.5 million tons of Cargo were Exported Hhrough the International Port of Turkmenbashi (Turkmenistan)]. Internet-portal SNG, 2022, 2 sentyabrya, available at:

“Soft Power„ Instrument in Promoting International Development


In the present article the authors substantiate the following thesis: in the context of real polycentrism and increased confrontation between the states with liberal system of values and the states that defend real sovereignty and non-interference in internal affairs of aid-recipient states through a variety of development assistance tools, exceptionally “soft power” can become an effective mechanism of creating conditions for sustainable development of the world community as a whole. In preparing the study the authors applied the methods of historicism and comparative analysis of approaches to the policy of realizing the “soft power” goals.


1. Abramova A.V., Gabarta A.A., Degterev D.A., Degtereva E.A., Kapitsa L.M. Inostrannaya pomoshch’ [Foreign Aid]. Pod obshch. red. L.M. Kapitsy; MGIMO (U) MID Rossii, kaf. mirovoi ekonomiki. Moscow, MGIMO-Universitet, 2013, p. 8.

2. Abramova A.V., Zav’yalova E.B., Zaitsev Yu.K., Kapitsa L.M, Kozlova O.A. Sodeistvie mezhdunarodnomu razvitiyu. Kurs lektsii [Promotion of International Development. Lecture Course]. Pod red. V.I. Barteneva i E.N. Glazunovoi. Moscow, 2012, 408 p.

3. Roger C. Riddel. Does Foreign Aid Really Work? Oxford University Press, 2008. P. 77.

4. Sodeistvie mezhdunarodnomu razvitiyu kak instrument vneshnei politiki: zarubezhnyi opyt [Promotion of International Development as a Foreign Policy Instrument: Foreign Experience]. Pod red. V.G. Baranovskogo, Yu.D. Kvashnina, N.V. Toganovoi. Moscow, IMEMO RAN, 2018, p. 19.

5. Ligorio V. Vneshnyaya tenevaya politika Rossii: “myagkaya vlast’” i mezhdunarodnoe obrazovanie [Foreign Shadow Policy of Russia: “Soft Power” and International Education]. European science, 2019, no 5, pp. 83–91.

6. Burlinova N. Russian soft power is just like Western soft power, but with a twist. Russia Direct, 2015, April, 7, available at:

7. Conley H., Gerber T., Moore L., David M. Russian Soft Power in the 21st Century: An Examination of Russian Compatriot Policy in Estonia. Washington, 2011, D.C, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, available at:

8. Giragosian R. Soft Power in Armenia: Neither Soft, nor Powerful. European Council on Foreign Relations, 2015, available at:

9. Cheskin A. History, Conflicting Collective Memories, and National Identities: How Latvia’s Russian-Speakers Are Learning to Remember. Nationalities Papers, 2012, vol. 40, iss. 4, pp. 561–584.

10. Ćwiek-Karpowicz J. Limits to Russian Soft Power in the Post-Soviet Area. DGAPanalyse, 2012, available at:

11. Kornilov A., Makarychev A. Russia’s soft power in the South Caucasus: discourses, communication, hegemony. Agadjanian Alexander; Joedicke, Ansgar; van der Zweerde, Evert (Ed.). Religion, Nation and Democracy in the South Caucasus. Routledge Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2015, pp. 238–254.

Foreign Policy of China and the United States’ Imposition of a Bipolar Confrontation on China


The article analyzes the US policy in terms of rebuilding bipolarity in the world community, where the Communist Party of China is designated as the main enemy of progressive humanity, an attempt is made to reform alliances of supporters of confrontation with China and countries that are confidently striving to pursue sovereign foreign and domestic policies. For the United States, this positioning corresponds to the tradition of foreign policy activities in the world community. In addition, it is based on the success of the policy of counteracting the camp of socialism and the USSR, and it was proposed to implement the same course in relation to the CPC of the PRC. A study of the main conceptual provisions determining the content of the PRC’s foreign policy strategy was carried out, it was proved that China does not seek to become a hegemon in the world community, but economic leadership and its economic interests will try to promote in all possible ways, excluding military actions. The economic expansion of the PRC can only be counteracted by the countries gaining genuine national economic sovereignty and building up national competitiveness, an interstate foreign policy strategy pursued by countries on the basis of realizing national interests and reaching an agreed consensus in sensitive sectors of economic interaction.

Total Figure: Pandemic as a Portal to the Future

DOI: 10.33917/es-1.175.2021.70-81

Review of 2020 strategic trends presents an analysis of the key components of the country’s integral power — economy, foreign policy, armed forces, territory, natural resources, culture and religion, science and education, population, governance — according to the original methodology developed by specialists of the Institute for Economic Strategies

Smile of Schr dinger’s Сat. Results of 2019

DOI: 10.33917/es-3.169.2020.114-125

Traditional review of the past year strategic trends presents an analysis of the key components of the country’s integral power economy, foreign policy, armed forces, territory, natural resources, culture and religion, science and education, population, management – according to the original methodology developed by the Institute for Economic strategies. The authors suggest that the past 2019 will become a year of breakthrough in creating a quantum computer — a device that can fundamentally change the trend and the speed of technological development, as it once happened with introduction of electricity into industrial production and life.

Сonsolidation of the BRICS Countries Positions — a Factor of Intensification of the World Community Development on the Basis of International Law in Defiance of the “Global Rules” That Meet the Interests of the USA

DOI: 10.33917/es-6.164.2019.60-66

Formation of the world system after the Second World War was based on international law, but later the United States began to apply efforts to subdue the development of the world system to the rules and norms developed by them. With collapse of the USSR and the socialist countries bloc, the US hegemony has gained dominant importance, underpinned by both transformation of functions and replacement of appropriately trained personnel of the UN, IMF, WB, WTO and a number of international organizations and NGOs created in different countries. The dominant position of the USA could be remedied at the level of international organizations, without altering the existing international community. Сonsolidating positions of the BRICS countries, primarily at international forums, can provide restoration of justice in the world community development, including preservation of the sovereignty, historical, sociocultural and religious identity of nations and peoples in order to ensure steady increase in the well-being of the world’s population, external and domestic policy independence, can establish mutually beneficial economic cooperation and political partnership meeting the national interest, as well as to eliminate interference in the internal affairs of third countries, attempts to change political regimes therein. The article discusses examples of pressure on the BRICS countries, attempts to exercise a destabilizing effect on the part of Western countries aimed at separation of the BRICS members; it analyzes the role of “soft power” in the foreign policy contour of the BRICS states in the regions where they play the role of development locomotives. Based on results of the analysis, relevant conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made

Professional Education of Young Generations as a Means of Expanding the Influence of Russian Culture and Russian Language

#8. Ideas Change the World
Professional Education of Young Generations as a Means of Expanding the Influence of Russian Culture and Russian Language

The article analyzes the Russian higher education system as an essential part of the “soft power” of Russia’s foreign policy. A comparison is made of the youth potential contingents in the CIS countries in the context of demographic aging. The role of Rossotrudnichestvo in the policy of the Russian language spreading in the post-Soviet space is considered. The authors conclude that Russia is interested in attracting foreign youth to Russian universities and claim the lack of an adequate state policy; they suggest measures to radically change the situation with foreign students’ education in Russian universities.

“Soft Power” Like an Effective Tool of Foreign Policy Influence in Conditions of Transition to Multipolarity

#5. Longstanding Generation
“Soft Power” Like an Effective Tool of Foreign Policy Influence in Conditions of Transition to Multipolarity

The article analyzes “soft power” as an instrument for implementing foreign policy strategy in modern conditions; a comparative analysis of the impact of the “soft power” components on the electorate is made; the author analyzes opposite directions of the goal-setting vectors of “soft power” in conditions of total globalization and transition to multipolarity; it is stated that polycentrism determines the self-identification of societies and realization of national interests, the existence and development of historical, linguistic, traditional cultural and ethnic characteristics of nations and peoples, as well as the role of the state as an institution, maintaining social justice, which gives a definite specificity to the mechanism of implementing the “soft power” policy; the article also reflects the increasing role of information space in the context of globalization.

On the Possibility of “Soft Power” Factor Application in Domestic and Foreign Policy of Russia

#3. Countdown
On the Possibility of “Soft Power” Factor Application in Domestic and Foreign Policy of Russia

Within the framework of solving complex interstate problems the traditional diplomatic actions and military operations today are being replaced by indirect actions technologies that undermine rival state from inside. In the political and political science literature such actions and based on them policies are called “soft power”, which is discussed in the article.

Count Savva Vladislavich in the Pantheon of Tsarist Russia

#2. Mr Wanna-know-All's Questions
Count Savva Vladislavich in the Pantheon of Tsarist Russia

The article represents a history of life and activity in Serbian culture of a strong and colorful personality — Hertzegovinian Savva Vladislavich known in Russia as count Savva Lukic Vladislavich-Raguzinsky.