Oorfene Deuce’s Mistake, or Some Remarks on Country Image

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.28-35

In the proposed material, the author draws attention to the fact that in the conditions of recent forced reputational losses for Russia, the problem of forming an attractive national image becomes extremely relevant. The author examines the position of Russia in the field of national image in comparison with a number of foreign states. Based on the approaches of the theoretical founder and leader of country branding, S. Anholt, the author reviews the state of affairs in various spheres of Russian life, and concludes that the most promising areas for the formation of a new positive image of Russia are the sphere of culture and the tourism industry.


1. Nye J. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York, Basic Books, 1990.

2. Nye J. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York, Public Affairs Group, 2004.

3. Russkie v Amerike. Kniga sudeb [Russians in America. Book of Fates].Comp. V. Levin. Minsk, Smolensk, 1996, p. 190.

4. Kotler Ph., Haider D.H., Rein I.J. Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations. Free Press, 1993.

5. Ward S.V., Ward S. Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities. 1850–2000. Taylor & Francis, 1998.

6. Anholt S. Places: Identity, Image and Reputation. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

7. Germany maintains top “nation brand” ranking, Canada and Japan overtake the UK to round out the top three. Ipsos, available at: https://www.ipsos.com/en/nation-brands-index-2021.

8. The Good Country Index, available at: https://index.goodcountry.org/

9. The Good Country Equation: How We Can Repair the World in One Generation. Berrett-Koehler, 2020.

10. Saimon Ankhol’t: Problema Rossii v tom, chto ee schitayut obuzoi [Simon Anholt: Russia’s Problem is That it is Considered a Burden]. SNOB, available at: https://snob.ru/selected/entry/56182/

11. Otchet o rezul’tatakh ekspertno-analiticheskogo meropriyatiya “Opredelenie osnovnykh prichin, sderzhivayushchikh nauchnoe razvitie v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: otsenka nauchnoi infrastruktury, dostatochnost’ motivatsionnykh mer, obespechenie privlekatel’nosti raboty vedushchikh uchenykh” [Report on Results of the Expert-analytical Event “Identification of the Main Reasons Hindering Scientific Development in the Russian Federation: Assessment of the Scientific Infrastructure, Sufficiency of Motivational Measures, Provision of Attractiveness of the Leading Scientists’ Work”]. FGOSVO, available at:  https://fgosvo.ru/uploadfiles/Work_materials_disscusion/sp.pdf.

12. Muzychuk V.Yu. Finansirovanie kul’tury v Rossii: shag vpered i dva nazad [Financing Culture in Russia: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back]. Zhurnal NEA, 2019, no 1(41), pp. 208–215.

13. Governance Index: World Map. SOLABILITY, available at: https://solability.com/the-global-sustainable-competitiveness-index/the-index/governance-capital.

14. Reiting turisticheskikh stran [Rating of Tourist Countries]. TouristicLog, available at: http://www.alexeytour.ru/strany_mira_tour-rating.html.

“Soft Power„ Instrument in Promoting International Development

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.104-117

In the present article the authors substantiate the following thesis: in the context of real polycentrism and increased confrontation between the states with liberal system of values and the states that defend real sovereignty and non-interference in internal affairs of aid-recipient states through a variety of development assistance tools, exceptionally “soft power” can become an effective mechanism of creating conditions for sustainable development of the world community as a whole. In preparing the study the authors applied the methods of historicism and comparative analysis of approaches to the policy of realizing the “soft power” goals.


1. Abramova A.V., Gabarta A.A., Degterev D.A., Degtereva E.A., Kapitsa L.M. Inostrannaya pomoshch’ [Foreign Aid]. Pod obshch. red. L.M. Kapitsy; MGIMO (U) MID Rossii, kaf. mirovoi ekonomiki. Moscow, MGIMO-Universitet, 2013, p. 8.

2. Abramova A.V., Zav’yalova E.B., Zaitsev Yu.K., Kapitsa L.M, Kozlova O.A. Sodeistvie mezhdunarodnomu razvitiyu. Kurs lektsii [Promotion of International Development. Lecture Course]. Pod red. V.I. Barteneva i E.N. Glazunovoi. Moscow, 2012, 408 p.

3. Roger C. Riddel. Does Foreign Aid Really Work? Oxford University Press, 2008. P. 77.

4. Sodeistvie mezhdunarodnomu razvitiyu kak instrument vneshnei politiki: zarubezhnyi opyt [Promotion of International Development as a Foreign Policy Instrument: Foreign Experience]. Pod red. V.G. Baranovskogo, Yu.D. Kvashnina, N.V. Toganovoi. Moscow, IMEMO RAN, 2018, p. 19.

5. Ligorio V. Vneshnyaya tenevaya politika Rossii: “myagkaya vlast’” i mezhdunarodnoe obrazovanie [Foreign Shadow Policy of Russia: “Soft Power” and International Education]. European science, 2019, no 5, pp. 83–91.

6. Burlinova N. Russian soft power is just like Western soft power, but with a twist. Russia Direct, 2015, April, 7, available at: https://russia-direct.org/opinion/russian-soft-power-just-western-soft-power-twist.

7. Conley H., Gerber T., Moore L., David M. Russian Soft Power in the 21st Century: An Examination of Russian Compatriot Policy in Estonia. Washington, 2011, D.C, Centre for Strategic and International Studies, available at: http://csis.org/files/publication/110826_Conley_RussianSoftPower_Web.pdf.

8. Giragosian R. Soft Power in Armenia: Neither Soft, nor Powerful. European Council on Foreign Relations, 2015, available at: https://www.europeansources.info/record/soft-power-in-armenia-neither-soft-nor-powerful/

9. Cheskin A. History, Conflicting Collective Memories, and National Identities: How Latvia’s Russian-Speakers Are Learning to Remember. Nationalities Papers, 2012, vol. 40, iss. 4, pp. 561–584.

10. Ćwiek-Karpowicz J. Limits to Russian Soft Power in the Post-Soviet Area. DGAPanalyse, 2012, available at: https://dgap.org/en/article/getFullPDF/21791.

11. Kornilov A., Makarychev A. Russia’s soft power in the South Caucasus: discourses, communication, hegemony. Agadjanian Alexander; Joedicke, Ansgar; van der Zweerde, Evert (Ed.). Religion, Nation and Democracy in the South Caucasus. Routledge Taylor & Francis Ltd, 2015, pp. 238–254.

Сonsolidation of the BRICS Countries Positions — a Factor of Intensification of the World Community Development on the Basis of International Law in Defiance of the “Global Rules” That Meet the Interests of the USA

DOI: 10.33917/es-6.164.2019.60-66

Formation of the world system after the Second World War was based on international law, but later the United States began to apply efforts to subdue the development of the world system to the rules and norms developed by them. With collapse of the USSR and the socialist countries bloc, the US hegemony has gained dominant importance, underpinned by both transformation of functions and replacement of appropriately trained personnel of the UN, IMF, WB, WTO and a number of international organizations and NGOs created in different countries. The dominant position of the USA could be remedied at the level of international organizations, without altering the existing international community. Сonsolidating positions of the BRICS countries, primarily at international forums, can provide restoration of justice in the world community development, including preservation of the sovereignty, historical, sociocultural and religious identity of nations and peoples in order to ensure steady increase in the well-being of the world’s population, external and domestic policy independence, can establish mutually beneficial economic cooperation and political partnership meeting the national interest, as well as to eliminate interference in the internal affairs of third countries, attempts to change political regimes therein. The article discusses examples of pressure on the BRICS countries, attempts to exercise a destabilizing effect on the part of Western countries aimed at separation of the BRICS members; it analyzes the role of “soft power” in the foreign policy contour of the BRICS states in the regions where they play the role of development locomotives. Based on results of the analysis, relevant conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made

Professional Education of Young Generations as a Means of Expanding the Influence of Russian Culture and Russian Language

#8. Ideas Change the World
Professional Education of Young Generations as a Means of Expanding the Influence of Russian Culture and Russian Language

The article analyzes the Russian higher education system as an essential part of the “soft power” of Russia’s foreign policy. A comparison is made of the youth potential contingents in the CIS countries in the context of demographic aging. The role of Rossotrudnichestvo in the policy of the Russian language spreading in the post-Soviet space is considered. The authors conclude that Russia is interested in attracting foreign youth to Russian universities and claim the lack of an adequate state policy; they suggest measures to radically change the situation with foreign students’ education in Russian universities.

“Soft Power” Like an Effective Tool of Foreign Policy Influence in Conditions of Transition to Multipolarity

#5. Longstanding Generation
“Soft Power” Like an Effective Tool of Foreign Policy Influence in Conditions of Transition to Multipolarity

The article analyzes “soft power” as an instrument for implementing foreign policy strategy in modern conditions; a comparative analysis of the impact of the “soft power” components on the electorate is made; the author analyzes opposite directions of the goal-setting vectors of “soft power” in conditions of total globalization and transition to multipolarity; it is stated that polycentrism determines the self-identification of societies and realization of national interests, the existence and development of historical, linguistic, traditional cultural and ethnic characteristics of nations and peoples, as well as the role of the state as an institution, maintaining social justice, which gives a definite specificity to the mechanism of implementing the “soft power” policy; the article also reflects the increasing role of information space in the context of globalization.

“Soft Power” of Science and Education in Developing Eurasian Economic Integration

#2. Sisyphean Task
“Soft Power” of Science and Education in Developing Eurasian Economic Integration

Russia’s chairmanship in the Eurasian Economic Union in 2018 allows us to formulate and bring to a wide discussion a set of initiatives aimed at strengthening the integration association and completing the lost links of the integration agenda. As the practice of EAEU functioning in conditions of external constraints and the lack of clearly articulated joint development priorities has shown, the Union needs to specify the goals and to reinforce pragmatic aspirations of the member states with serious research and practical work to update the joint cultural, historical and spiritual heritage of the peoples of Eurasia. In other words, it is necessary to give a new impetus to the Eurasian Union, which should become a competitive economic union of states that have a common picture of the world, a single system of conceptions and values. The network of scientific and educational institutions of the EAEU member states has become one of these bases cementing the common economic whole, which, if properly organized, can turn into a self-sufficient profitable industry, whose product (modern knowledge) can be successfully exported to third countries, increasing the prestige and capitalization of the union, as well as strengthening Russia’s foreign policy positions. To this end, it is necessary right now to take active steps towards growing clusters of science and education on the basis of exchanging best experience and practices between the profile institutions of the Union’s countries, to raise the bar of qualification requirements for all participants in the Eurasian scientific and educational exchange. The article proposes the approach outlines for the all-round stimulation of cooperation in this sphere with the aim of both self-sufficient provision of integration processes with modern personnel and for the outside supply.

“Soft Power” Tools of the People’s Republic of China in Its Relations with the World and Global Organizations (1949–2015 Biennium)

#8. Logic and ethic of fake
“Soft Power” Tools of the People’s Republic of China in Its Relations with the World and Global Organizations (1949–2015 Biennium)

The article traces China’s evolution from a closed state with fierce international censorship to the world’s cultural and economic center of power. The author specifies the periods of China’s formation as an active international actor in global organizations, cultural and educational environment for foreigners, as well as an information center for the world’s media. The paper deals with the stages of China’s gradual transition to the status of the country attractive for investment, it quotes the numbers and evidence of China’s concrete steps towards multilateral strengthening of its international image.

On the Possibility of “Soft Power” Factor Application in Domestic and Foreign Policy of Russia

#3. Countdown
On the Possibility of “Soft Power” Factor Application in Domestic and Foreign Policy of Russia

Within the framework of solving complex interstate problems the traditional diplomatic actions and military operations today are being replaced by indirect actions technologies that undermine rival state from inside. In the political and political science literature such actions and based on them policies are called “soft power”, which is discussed in the article.