Prospects for Russian-Turkmen Cooperation at the Current Stage

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.188.2023.36-43

The article analyzes historical development of the Russian-Turkmenistan relations. Multi-vector nature and flexibility in the development of a strategic partnership with Turkmenistan is substantiated. The author concludes that Russian-Turkmenistan relations should not be limited only to cooperation in the gas sector, but should develop dynamically towards formation of transport and logistics corridors, development of the tourist industry and communications modernization.


1. Parizhskaya rech’ generala v ego kvartire na ryu Pent’er pered serbskimi studentami “Zavety slavyanstvu” [“Testaments to the Slavs”, Parisian Speech of the General in his Apartment on Rue Pentier to Serbian Students]., available at:

2. Mezhgosudarstvennye otnosheniya Rossii i Turkmenii [Interstate Relations between Russia and Turkmenistan]. RIA “Novosti”, 2022, 10 iyunya, available at:

3. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020. 69th edition, available at:

4. BP Statistical Review of World Energy 2020. 71th edition, available at:

5. Vyakhirev gotov k kompromissu [Vyakhirev is Ready to Compromise]. Nezavisimaya gazeta, 1999, 18 dekabrya, available at:

6. V Ashkhabade sostoyalsya shestoi Kaspiiskii sammit [The Sixth Caspian Summit was Held in Ashgabat]. Rossiiskaya gazeta, 2022, 29 iyunya, available at:

7. Kaspiiskoe sotrudnichestvo kak sposob resheniya ekonomicheskikh problem Turkmenistana [Caspian Cooperation as a Way to Solve Turkmenistan’s Economic Problems]. CABAR, available at:

8., available at:

9. Turkmenistan prizyvaet strany Kaspiya k rasshireniyu transportnogo sotrudnichestva [Turkmenistan Calls on the Caspian Countries to Expand Transport Cooperation]. Bol’shaya Aziya, 2022, 7 oktyabrya, available at:

10. Proekt Turkmenbashinskogo mezhdunarodnogo porta [The Project of the Turkmenbashi International Port]. GAP.INSAAT, available at:

11. Cherez mezhdunarodnyi port Turkmenbashi (Turkmenistan) eksportirovano bolee 6,5 mln tonn gruzov [More than 6.5 million tons of Cargo were Exported Hhrough the International Port of Turkmenbashi (Turkmenistan)]. Internet-portal SNG, 2022, 2 sentyabrya, available at:

Five Years of Eurasian Integration: Statistical Analysis of Key Economic Results

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.166.2019.48-57

Over 5 years after the signing of the Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union, the experience of the integration process has been accumulated, its pros and cons, potential and obstacles for a new stage in the development of the EAEU have been identified. The accuracy of estimates of the 5-year integration dynamics affects the effectiveness of decisions on further integration. A complete, reliable, qualitative statistical assessment of the economic condition of the Union is a necessary basis for the successful dynamics of the Union at a new stage

Armenia Within the Eurasian Economic Union

DOI: 10.33917/es-7.165.2019.74-77

The Treaty on the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), signed on May 29, 2014, entered into force on January 1, 2015. The purpose of the Union is to provide conditions for the stable economic development of member states by improving the living standards of the population, comprehensive modernization, cooperation and increasing the competitiveness of national economies. Armenia became part of the EAEU 2015 on January 2. At the same time, the most important problems for all countries remain: the problem of diversification of national industry; low competitiveness of the products of most manufacturers, a low share of high-tech products in exports, virtually no trade and investment cooperation between individual pairs of countries, the degree of public confidence in the integration group. The article discusses issues related to the economic development of Armenia within the EAEU, mutual trade with the EAEU member countries, the attitude of the population to the EAEU; the positive and negative aspects of Armenia’s participation in the EAEU, as well as possible ways to strengthen integration within the EAEU are revealed

China’s Bifurcation Point: Search for a New Strategic Model

#2. Noah’s Caste
China's Bifurcation Point: Search for a New Strategic Model

In the last period every year the global economy was increasingly dependent on the pace of China’s economy development, on which many countries have traditionally pinned their hopes for successful exit from the crisis. 2015 has clearly and unequivocally demonstrated the tendency of Chinese critical instability increase. There are many reasons, and one of the most important was the change in the US policy — termination of “quantitative easing” programs, which determines conditions of demand for Chinese goods and the volume of their exports. Once and for all the credit character of “successful” China’s economic growth became apparent, the possibility of obtaining the effect from realizing the model of financial incentives to China’s national economy through increasing the volume of loans and investments is almost exhausted. The main conclusion: there is a direct correlation between the consequences of investment and industrial glut in China due to extreme economic growth and strengthening of structural economic and financial disproportions laying the contours of inevitably arising from them a new round of Chinese and the global economic crises.

More Unions — Good and Different!

#1. Beyond Design Basis Evaluations

Russia made a serious compromise on decisionmaking in the Eurasian Economic Commission (“one country — one vote”), despite the obvious difference in economies, size of territory and population.

The Present and the Future of the Light Industry

#3. Green question

Domestic light industry is constantly demonstrating increase in output, but in parallel much faster are increasing volumes of import. 80 per cent of the market we have given to who knows whom. If we look into the problem, it’s big money.