The article dwells on the basic principles and problems of technological development that arise from the specifics of certain technologies. The choice of technological capabilities at the individual and firm level cannot comply solely with the investment logic of decision-making, as the technologies life cycle includes unpredictable effects that can significantly improve the return, which cannot be anticipated at the initial point of transition from one technological opportunity to another. Technologies are characterized by special properties, which have a decisive influence on the course of technological development. And these properties are not characteristic for other types of goods, this fact fundamentally distinguishes formation of demand for new technologies and affects the options for their use. Any technology consists of a kind of nucleus and variable periphery, is characterized by various kinds of animation effects and can also be an integral element of the combinatorial effect in the sphere of technologies. Owing to this “frame” that defines the structure of technology, it acts as a kind of a rule that determines the behavior of agents and conditions for developing the service infrastructure. Existing models of economic growth do not fully take into account the microeconomic institutional properties of technology, creating a pseudo-correct image of technologies’ impact on the system’s growth. In this regard, formation of the theory framework for the economic system processability will provide the necessary guidance in describing and investigating technological and institutional changes and economic growth, which are highly dependent on them. The aggregate productivity of factors also becomes to a significant degree a system parameter, dependent on overall technological applicability and institutional changes. The article describes the main characteristics of functioning of the fundamental research sector, which acts as the generator of all subsequent technological changes in a long range of economic development.
The article deals with scientific staff’s emigration and immigration, including the practice of engaging leading foreign scientists. The authors propose concrete arrangements to form points of growth in the Russian system of science and education.
Comparative analysis of approaches to the indicative assessment of scientific workers efficiency in academic and industrial institutions and educational organizations is held.
The purpose of the article is to justify theoretically the possibility of achieving the maximum social efficiency of public spending, investment and taxes in perfect balanced open economic system. Ideally, the proposed model ( “zero losses” of public spending and investment social efficiency) can always lead to the maximum possible rate of economic growth, which allows to substantiate the main directions of the appropriate macroeconomic (financial, tax and fiscal) policy.