Carbon intensity of natural gas and electricity, development of renewable energy sources in Russia and abroad

DOI: 10.33917/mic-3.98.2021.57-64

The analysis of methods for reducing the carbon intensity of pipeline gas and LNG and the development of renewable energy for the long term in Russia and the world is given. Considerable attention is paid to the conflict of interests of the German parties around the «Nord Stream 2» gas pipeline, which is particularly evident before the elections to the German Bundestag, which will be held on September 26, 2021.

The conclusion about the great environmental friendliness and economy of the «Nord Stream 2» is justified.

The analysis of the long-term program for the development of LNG production in the Russian Federation, adopted by the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation on March 16, 2021, is given.

The impact of CO2 emissions on the prices of Gazprom’s LNG and pipeline gas in Europe and the world (analytical review)

DOI: 10.33917/mic-2.97.2021.75-82

In November 2021, the climate summit of the countries participating in the Paris Climate Agreement will be held. It should be taken into account that the energy and carbon intensity of LNG production during its liquefaction and transportation can be significant. Carbon neutral LNG adds a «Green premium» to the LNG price of 17-37 % of the value of the LNG cargo in the current spot market. The «Green premium» can be estimated at 0,8–$ 1.7/MMBtu or $ 10-20/t of CO2 for removing CO2 from LNG.

The article shows that the carbon intensity of American LNG in Europe is 3 times higher than that of Russian pipeline gas.

Assessing the Possibility of a Gas Hub Emergence in East Asia

DOI: 10.33917/es-1.175.2021.136-141

The article examines the problem of emergence in East Asia of a regional trading center (hub) for liquefied natural gas (LNG) with its own independent price index, which can become the basis for pricing in long-term contracts for supplying gas to the countries of this region. The author identifies the main factors stimulating Asian players in the gas market to pass to a new pricing system while signing gas purchase contracts. The countries — the main candidates for creating their own LNG hub — are considered. The article analyzes current situation and the prospects for developing regional LNG hubs in such countries as China, Japan and Singapore.

The paper also identifies the main obstacles to creating developed exchange trade of LNG in the Asia-Pacific countries and estimates the most likely places for the emergence of a gas hub.

On the impact of Nord stream 2 on the EU natural gas market (analytical review)

DOI: 10.33917/mic-3.92.2020.76-81

The article analyses key questions of the impact of Nord Stream 2 on the European markets.

Currently, Nord Stream 2 is one of the key international conflicts, where USA and Poland are project opponents, and Russia and key European countries are project supporters.

In the article [1] it is shown, that Nord Stream-2 launch in 2020 will reduce gas prices for all 28 EU countries by 13% with low global LNG demand and by 32% with high global LNG demand. Significant price reductions will be also received by Nord Stream 2 opponents, such as Poland. LNG imported from USA will be suffering the most.