The article provides an overview of the world experience of digitalization of the electric power industry, examines the prerequisites for the development of the digital retail electricity market in the Russian Federation, highlights the main technical, organizational and regulatory issues and problems of transition to the digital retail electricity market
The "Economic Strategies" journal
Forecasts of the scenarios for the development of the world nuclear power industry are given, taking into account the limited resources of natural uranium and the concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a new model of dynamic forecasting of the depletion of fossil resources, possible restrictions on the development of hydrocarbon and nuclear energy at thermal reactors are considered. It is shown that the existing nuclear power based on thermal reactors does not have a long-term perspective (more than 100 years) for a number of reasons. The most promising development in order to maintain and, moreover, increase the contribution of nuclear power plants to electricity generation, is the two-component nuclear power system with a combined uranium-plutonium nuclear fuel cycle. However, the widespread introduction of fast-neutron reactors is possible in the second half of this century. For the next few decades, the tasks of economic substantiation of the diversification of business product lines in the field of a closed nuclear fuel cycle for scenarios of the development of nuclear power on thermal reactors in conditions of limited traditional reserves of natural uranium are urgent
Energy sector, like the defence complex, is one of the key industries that serve as a basis for the life support processes of the country and the resulting stability of the state political structure. World practice has clearly demonstrated the key dependence of domestic political and social stability on reliability and sustainability of energy supply. Multifactorial survivability of the energy supersystem under normal and critical conditions of natural and anthropogenic origin can be provided through forming a net-centric system of elevated management stability, based on a distributed network of inter-corporate disaster-resistant data centers for processing and storing extremely large data sets. It is proposed to use data centers as bases for digital “twins” of energy facilities and processes in order to finally achieve a new quality of control based on digital topology within a single digital model of the energy supersystem with the possibility of secure collection, storage, processing and exchange of data, necessary for managing power facilities of various sectoral subsystems of the Russian fuel and energy complex, as well as for regional and municipal authorities. Application of digital topology makes it possible, during local interactions, to search for and implement solutions for moving towards local, network and polycentric resource-operational optima in order to minimize costs (price burden on the consumer) of separate companies and the entire industry with the aim of maintaining reliability and sustainability of energy supply, including security costs of the critical information infrastructure systems
Today, Russia is taking measures to support small and medium-sized businesses, because they play a decisive role in the country’s economy. This confirms the creation of various programs that support the development of firms of this size. But the opening of an organization will not attract clients and will not bring profit if you do not use promotion tools, and the combination of these tools, competent building of their sequence is a promotion strategy.
The article reveals the role of university curators in the professional self-determination of first-year students in humanitarian areas of training. The concept of “professional self-determination” is being clarified. Possible directions of professional orientation work with students are indicated. The relevance of the topic of obtaining a humanitarian education in society is substantiated, the reasons for the emergence in society of the need for professions of a social and humanitarian orientation are indicated. The works of research scientists studying the areas of professional self-determination are analyzed. The dynamics of personal changes that occur with firstyear students as a result of their professional orientation are analyzed. The meaning and tasks of curatorial work are presented, as well as problems that university curators may face today: possible mistakes of the curator in working with first-year students, namely lack of experience, lack of conscientiousness, incompetence. The main directions of the curator’s work with first-year students are revealed. The directions of activity of the university curators in conjunction with the psychological and pedagogical service are proposed. The conditions for the successful implementation of the curator’s activities with students in the direction of professional self-determination, such as planning, organization, control, motivation, are noted.
The purpose of the article is to determine the main directions of development of the Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the executive and legislative authorities of Russia. As a rule, behind general phrases about the reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian society is poorly informed about the current activities of the Academy of Sciences. The authors set themselves the task of filling this gap, of course, by bringing in their own proposals and some vision of the tasks of the development of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The methodology of this work is a comparative analysis, approaches to setting strategic objectives for the development of science and planning this process. The results of the study made it possible to concretize the tasks of the RAS development, highlighting the segment where the Academy itself is obliged to make changes to solve the necessary tasks, as well as the area of responsibility for changes at the level of the executive and, separately, the legislative branch. In addition, the directions have been established in which the RAS has an undoubted success in implementation, requiring its increase, as well as the necessary organizational changes, the need for which is very high in the context of intensifying scientific competition and the advanced development of science. The set of proposals will make it possible to recreate the chain of “fundamental science — R&D — production”, attracting backbone corporations of a science-intensive and other profile to such interaction. The article proposes a system of promising changes in the activities of the Russian Academy of Sciences, substantiates the position that they are able to increase the efficiency of science, without reducing it to what science should give to the economy instantly.
A step-by-step and objective review of the history of the State Planning Committee of the USSR (Gosplan), presented by the authors, helps to form a holistic idea of how the power of the USSR arose and what objective necessity or what subjective factors led to a radical change in the political and socio-economic structure of the country.
In modern unstable economic conditions, when valuating unique or capital-intensive objects, it is more often value in use (investment one or user one) is determined. In this case, the calculations are based on the income approach, linking the future incomes of the asset under valuation and the risks of not receiving them. The article describes the latest advances in calculating techniques previously unknown in world practice, covering the variability of the capitalization rate over time and refined formulas for the risk build-up method.
Research methodology for studying the strategic potential of Russian appraisal companies is based on “Strategic Matrix of a Company” software package, whose algorithm implies analysis of qualitative and quantitative indicators that allow to create a complete profile of the company and to prepare a scenario forecast of its development. The main qualitative parameters under analysis include such criteria as the degree of innovation and services differentiation, the level of competition and the company’s position in the market, priority of certain strategic goals in the company’s activities, effectiveness of motivation, corporate culture, the ability to quickly gain access to necessary resources.