Author page: Ekaterina Eliseeva

Victory of Life over Death. Collection of Nikolay Khorikov, a Photojournalist of the Civil War and Famine in the Volga Region

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.188.2023.136-141

The present article examines the works of the Samara photographer Nikolay Khorikov, who made a significant contribution into preserving the history of such a large-scale disaster as the famine that befell the Samara province during the Civil War. The main emphasis is made not on building a policy of memory around the inhuman suffering endured by the people, but on the experience of overcoming this greatest humanitarian catastrophe. The author presents the main milestones in the life of N.S. Khorikov, analyzes visual sources — a series of photos taken by the photographer in the 1930s for publication in the central media.


1. Lomonosova M.V. Fotokhronika ada. Katolicheskii svyashchennik Mishel’ d’Erben’i o golode v Rossii v 1921–1922 godakh: Sb. dokladov konferentsii “Fotografiya v muzee” [Photo Chronicle of Hell. Catholic Priest Michel d’Herbigny on the Famine in Russia in 1921–1922: Collection of Reports of the Conference “Photography in the Museum”]. Sankt-Peterburg: Gosudarstvennyi muzeino-vystavochnyi tsentr ROSFOTO, 2020. S. 81–86. URL:

2. Mastera russkogo fotograficheskogo portreta (raboty moskovskikh fotografov XIX — nachala XX v. v sobranii VSMZ): Katalog-spravochnik [Masters of Russian Photographic Portraiture (Works by Moscow Photographers of the 19th — Early 20th Centuries in the VSMZ Collection): Directory]. Sost. T.E. Markova; Vladimiro-Suzdal’skii muzei-zapovednik, Vladimir, 2010, p. 76.

3. Konyakina T.Yu., Borisova Z.A. Neizvestnyi Nikolai Khorikov [Unknown Nikolay Horikov]. Kraevedcheskie zapiski, vyp. 17, Samara, 2014, p. 141.

4. Erbin’i M., de. Pomoshch’ svyateishego prestola russkim golodayushchim [Help from the Holy See to the Russian Starving]. Per. S. Volkonskogo, Rim, 1925, 79 p.

5. Liberman I.S. Al’bom Goloda v Povolzh’e. Samara 1921–1922 [Album of Hunger in the Volga Region. Samara 1921-1922]. Samara, 1922, available at:

6. Obrashchenie SNK SSSR, TsK VKP(b) ot 30.07.1931 “O razvertyvanii sotsialisticheskogo zhivotnovodstva” [Address of the Council of People’s Commissars of the USSR, Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party of Bolsheviks dated 07/30/1931 “On the Deployment of Socialist Animal Husbandry”]. SZ SSSR, 1931, no 46, st. 312; Izvestiya TsIK Soyuza SSR i VTsIK ot 31.07.1931 no 209.

In Anticipation of Changes

#7. Connected Space
In Anticipation of Changes

Calculation data of the multifactorial “Strategic Matrix” model methodology showed stability of the relatively low value of Russia’s integral index. However, just such static character of the calculated indicator means an increase of problems in the Russian society, which is evidently shown by hard decline in social support for the authorities activities. Another reelection of V.V. Putin as the President of Russia did not result in prospects for a way out of the crisis in the minds of Russian citizens.

Collapse is Postponed

#5. Digital Agitation
Collapse is Postponed

Calculation of the final integral index for the Russian Federation, determined through methodology of the “Strategic Matrix” multifactorial model, confirmed the static character of this indicator, the value of which remains low for the last three years. At the same time, we continue to observe mutually-equivocal fluctuations of the calculated indicators both in the factorial and regional sections. At the same time, according to sociological surveys, the remaining problems in the social-economic sphere practically don’t affect the mood of Russians, which is especially important on the eve of the new electoral cycle.

Sweeping Dustunder the Rug

#5. To Understand. To Prevent. To Overcome
Sweeping Dustunder the Rug

When calculating the final integral index for the Russian Federation, determined according to the methodology of multifactor “Strategic matrix” model, the authors once again noted the low level of this indicator in 2015. It has not changed in comparison with the previous year. But in the factors context they have identified a tendency of compensating the key social indices lowering due to the growth of the secondary ones. Its presence is confirmed by opinion polls of the Public Opinion Foundation, that is, by how the Russians themselves assess changes in their daily life and the state of affairs in solving the problems they face.

Breaking Patterns

#7. Maint Games
Breaking Patterns

Analyzing actual data of the RF subjects social development, the authors note: as follows from calculation data of integral indicators, defined on the basis of the multifactor model methodology “Strategic matrix of the RF region”, developed by the Institute for Economic Strategies, negative economic trends have not yet practically effected the population living conditions. On the contrary, the all-Russian 2014 final index has even slightly increased compared to the previous year index.

“Social State” in Advance

#6-7. 100 Years of War: The Point of Beginning
“Social State” in Advance

As follows from the calculation of the integral indices of the RF subjects social potential, determined based on the multifactor model methodology called “Strategic Matrix of the RF region”, worked out by the Institute for Economic Strategies, the development of social conditions cannot be considered even and uniform. Good data is demonstrated in those three of the nine factors that are directly related to reanimation of economic growth in the country — these factors are “Employment”, “Living conditions” and “Crime”.

Regions of Russia — Community with a Common Destiny

#6-7. Springs of Surprises

From solving the problem of uneven regional development depends the life of the whole country. The question is how to overcome this inequality, to smooth the historically formed differences.

Regions Socially Responsible Development Rating

#7-8. Passions on the adjuster

Separate elements of the socially responsible development of regions are regularly measured and reported to the public by competent bodies. These elements of socially responsible development include: ecology, social sphere, efficient governance, investment feasibility, infrastructure, security, level of crime and others.