The "Economic Strategies" journal

#6. 2021. Without Losing the Trunk




Methodological Approach to Assessing the Economic Efficiency of Digital Projects Applying Internet of Things Platforms

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.134-142

One of the key ones and most cost-effective technology from an economic point of view for the real sector is the Internet of Things (IoT) technology, which is usually provided in the form of Internet of Things (IoT) platforms, still does not have its own framework for assessing its economic efficiency. The author proposes a methodological approach based on a combination of classical methods of investment analysis and an architectural approach. From the information point of view the scientific work is based on cost-effectiveness studies of IoT projects, domestic and foreign scientific publications, IT cases and research on taxonomy of IoT platforms. The proposed approach may serve as the basis both for preparation of financial business cases and for facilitating the development of tools for objective assessment of the project initiatives attractiveness as part of implementation of the state digital development programs in Russia.

Источники:

1. Tsifrovoe desyatiletie. V nogu so vremenem [Digital Decade. In Step with the Times]. PriceWaterhouseCoopers, 2017, available at: https://www.pwc.ru/ru/publications/global-digital-iq-survey-rus.pdf.

2. Tsifrovaya Rossiya: novaya real’nost’ [Digital Russia: New Reality]. McKinsey, 2017, available at: https://www.mckinsey.com/ru/~/media/mckinsey/locations/europe%20and%20middle%20east/russia/our%20insights/digital%20russia/digital-russia-report.pdf.

3. Pasport federal’nogo proekta “Tsifrovye tekhnologii” [Passport of the “Digital Technologies” Federal Project]. Tsifrovaya ekonomika, available at: https://files.data-economy.ru/Docs/FP_Cifrovye_texnologii_pdf.

4. Internet of Things, IoT, M2M market in Russia. TADVISER, available at: https://tadviser.com/index.php/Article:Internet_of_Things%2C_IoT%2C_M2M_%28Russian_market%29#IDC:_The_Internet_of_Things_market_in_Russia_will_grow_to_.249_billion_in_2020.

5. Kaczorowska A., Sloniec J., Motyka S. Comprehensive methods of evaluation and project efficiency account. Proceedings of the 2016 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems, 2016, Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers Inc., pp. 1159–1168.

6. The State of Today’s IT: Process Maturity, Business Alignment, and Digital Transformation. HDI, available at: https://www.thinkhdi.com/~/media/HDICorp/Files/Industry-Reports/state-of-todays-IT-2017.pdf.

7. SDG Digital Investment Framework — A whole-of-Government Approach to Investing in Digital Technologies to Achieve the SDGs. International Telecommunication Union, available at: https://www.itu.int/pub/D-STR-DIGITAL.02-2019.

8. 2021 List of IoT Platforms Companies. IOT-ANALYICS, available at: https://iot-analytics.com/product/list-of-iot-platform-companies/

9. APQC Cross Industry Process Classification Framework version 7.2.1. APQC. 2021, available at: https://www.apqc.org/resource-library/resource-listing/apqcprocess-classification-framework-pcf-cross-industry-excel-7.

10. Porter M. Konkurentnoe preimushchestvo: Kak dostich’ vysokogo rezul’tata i obespechit’ ego ustoichivost’ [Competitive Advantage: How to Achieve High Result and Ensure Its Sustainability]. Moscow, Al’pina Pablisher, 2016, 1020 p.

Legal Regulation Issues of Scientific Cooperation with Foreign Citizens and Foreign Organizations

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.144-149

The article offers a general overview of the legal regulation of scientific cooperation with foreign citizens and foreign organizations in the context of the main legal problems of interaction of Russian scientific bodies with interested foreign subjects. During the work method of analysis, system-structural, formal-legal methods and a method of interpreting the rules of law were used.

Источники:

1. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 1 dekabrya 2016 g. N 642 (v red. ot 15 marta 2021 g.) “O Strategii nauchno-tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Executive Order of the President of the Russian Federation of December 1, 2016 No. 642 (as Amended on March 15, 2021) “On the Strategy for Scientific and Technological Development of the Russian Federation”]. Konsul’tantPlyus, available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_207967/

2. Deklaratsiya o printsipakh mezhdunarodnogo prava, kasayushchikhsya druzhestvennykh otnoshenii i sotrudnichestva mezhdu gosudarstvami v sootvetstvii s Ustavom Organizatsii Ob”edinennykh Natsii (prinyata 24 oktyabrya 1970 g. Rezolyutsiei 2625 (XXV) na 1883-m plenarnom zasedanii General’noi Assamblei OON) [Declaration on Principles of International Law Concerning Friendly Relations and Cooperation Between States in Accordance with the Charter of the United Nations (Adopted on October 24, 1970 by Resolution 2625 (XXV) at the 1883th Plenary Meeting of the UN General Assembly)]. Organizatsiya Ob”edinennykh Natsii, available at: https://www.un.org/ru/documents/decl_conv/declarations/intlaw_principles.shtml.

3. Soglashenie mezhdu Pravitel’stvom Rossiiskoi Federatsii i Evropeiskim soobshchestvom o sotrudnichestve v oblasti nauki i tekhnologii (podpisano v g. Bryussele 16 noyabrya 2000 g.) [Agreement Between the Government of the Russian Federation and the European Community on Cooperation in Science and

Technology (Signed in Brussels on November 16, 2000)]. Elektronnyi fond pravovykh i normativno-tekhnicheskikh dokumentov, available at: http://docs.cntd.ru/document/901801289.

4. Sbornik deistvuyushchikh mezhdunarodnykh soglashenii o nauchno-tekhnicheskom sotrudnichestve, podgotovlennyi Departamentom mezhdunarodnogo sotrudnichestva v obrazovanii i nauke Ministerstva obrazovaniya i nauki Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Collection of Current International Agreements on Scientific and Technical Cooperation, Prepared by the Department of International Cooperation in Education and Science of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation]. Sbornik deistvuyushchikh mezhdunarodnykh soglashenii o nauchno-tekhnicheskom sotrudnichestve, available at: http://window.edu.ru/catalog/pdf2txt/933/66933/39709.

5. Zaklyuchennye RAN soglasheniya o mezhdunarodnom sotrudnichestve [International Cooperation Agreements Concluded by RAS]. Ofitsial’nyi sait RAN, available at: http://www.ras.ru/about/cooperation/intagreements.aspx.

6. Federal’nyi zakon ot 9 iyulya 1999 g. N 160-FZ (v red. ot 2 iyulya 2021 g.) “Ob inostrannykh investitsiyakh v Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Federal Law of July 9, 1999 No. 160-FZ (as Amended on July 2, 2021) “On Foreign Investments in the Russian Federation”]. Konsul’tantPlyus, available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_16283/

On Catastrophic Increase in Mortality and Measures to Save the People in Russia

DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.33917/es-5.179.2021.6-15

How is it that in Russia, unlike in other countries, during the coronavirus pandemic the total mortality increased by a record amount and the income and consumption of the population decreased to the greatest extent? The point is that the crisis, caused by the coronavirus pandemic, is completely different from previous ones. It highlights the dilemma: should we use forces and means to prevent an economic recession with lower costs for anti-crisis measures, or focus on saving people’s lives while minimizing additional mortality and maintaining real incomes of the population? Each country, depending on objectives, prevailing conditions and opportunities, chooses its “golden mean”. In many cases such choice is not fully conscious, since it’s not possible to forecast with any certainty even over the near term. Decisions have to be taken up along the way, based on the situation and assessing the probability of certain events, including in view of the other countries’  experience in combating the pandemic.

The EAEU Demography and Human Capital: Trends and Losses in the Context of a Pandemic

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.20-29

Demographic dynamics becomes crucially important for successful scenario of the future for both Eurasian integration and each EAEU member state. The “pandemic crisis” caused an increase in excess mortality, reduced social well-being and created serious legal and managerial conflicts. Within the EAEU new barriers to mobility and migration have emerged and social tension has increased. In the existing realities the current supranational solutions are insufficient, they are poorly focused on achieving the demographic security of the EAEU member states. Coordinated actions are needed to significantly improve the demographic situation in the EAEU.

Budget Subsidies + “Private Concession Initiative” = Stopper for Social Infrastructure Development

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.30-39

The overwhelming majority of social infrastructure facilities remain in state ownership, requiring special formats for attracting private investment without possibility of disposition and loss of their destination. Mechanism of public-private partnership doesn’t leave any other option for such projects, and the “private concession initiative”, which has become widespread in recent years, is best suited for projects focused on commercial activities, although this limits its application to social facilities. Non-competitive basis of this format relies on the market offer of the investor, whose rationality does not imply social behavior and whose activity is obviously not intended for budgetary participation. Recently, there has been an increase in cases of government authorities taking commitments on budgetary co-financing of agreements concluded as a result of such initiatives, which is often fraught with systemic violations of budgetary legislation. Connivance of the control-supervisory and judicial authorities results in formation of skewed law enforcement practice, in 36.2% of projects investors receive

additional rental income from the budget, objectively not justified. This not only results in budget overpayments, but also devalues competitive formats that were previously quite successful — at present only 1/5 of social projects are concluded through a competitive process.

Источники:

1. Kireeva A.V. Sovremennye problemy institutsional’nogo regulirovaniya ekonomicheskikh otnoshenii v sfere gosudarstvenno-chastnogo partnerstva [Modern Problems of Institutional Regulation of Economic Relations in the Field of Public-Private Partnership]. Vestnik Evraziiskoi nauki, 2020, no 4, available at: https://esj.today/PDF/56ECVN420.pdf.

2. Kudelich M.I. Pryamoe soglashenie v proektakh s gosudarstvennym uchastiem: sravnitel’no-pravovoi analiz [Direct Agreement in Projects with State Participation: Comparative Legal Analysis]. Finansovyi zhurnal, 2019, no 6, pp. 57–69, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.31107/2075-1990-2019-6-57-69.

3. Ponomarev R.V. Osobennosti regulirovaniya kontsessionnykh soglashenii v zarubezhnykh stranakh [Peculiarities of Regulating Concession Agreements in Foreign Countries]. Innovatsii i investitsii, 2015, no 8, pp. 66–70.

4. Istomina N.A. Konkurentsiya za byudzhetnye sredstva v kontseptsii byudzhetirovaniya, orientirovannogo na rezul’tat [Competition for Budgetary Funds in the Concept of Performance-Based Budgeting]. Finansovaya analitika: problemy i resheniya, 2014, no 29, pp. 41–47.

5. Gavrilova Yu.A. Monitoring praktiki primeneniya zakonodatel’stva o kontraktnoi sisteme i perspektivy ego sovershenstvovaniya [Monitoring the Practice of Applying Legislation on the Contract System and Prospects for Its Improvement]. Monitoring pravoprimeneniya, 2019, no 3, pp. 36–42, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.21681/2226-0692-2019-3-36-42.

6. Belozor F.I. Zakupki dlya gosudarstvennykh nuzhd: garmonizatsiya dobrosovestnoi konkurentsii i ekonomicheskoi effektivnosti [Public Procurement: Harmonizing Fair Competition and Economic Efficiency]. Gosudarstvennoe i munitsipal’noe upravlenie. Uchenye zapiski, 2021, no 1, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.22394/2079-1690-2021-1-1-93-101.

Basic Mechanisms for Developing State Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.46-57

In modern conditions, implementation of sustainable progressive movement of the country by carrying out large-scale structural changes can be realized only on the basis of a centralized identification of areas, goals, priorities of socio-economic development, as well as indicators of strategies, programs and plans interconnected at all levels of the country’s national economy management. Methodologically the article is based on dialectical method of scientific knowledge, as well as systemic and institutional approaches. Scientific periodicals (monographs, scientific articles, etc.) and official documents of legislative and executive authorities of the Russian Federation on the issues of state strategic and long-term planning in Russia and the USSR were used as an information and analytical base. The article dwells on the following issues: 1) as a result of analysis of domestic and foreign literary sources, as well as regulatory and methodological guidelines in the field of state strategic planning, its main shortcomings were identified. According to the authors, these include: dissemination of program-targeted management methods not only into all spheres of socio-economic development, but also to the areas of budget allocations, the lack of sufficient information base of calculations; 2) methodological approach (stages, sequence of work, methods and procedures) to elaborating state programs for the economic development of the country, industries and regions is proposed; 3) application of the methods of hierarchies analysis (MHA) and network modeling (NPM) as the main methods for developing state programs is substantiated; 4) proposals on the composition and structure of the information base for calculating indicators of state programs are given.

Источники:

1. Kondrat’ev N.D. Izbrannye sochineniya [Selected Works]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1993, 543 p.

2. Leont’ev V.V. Ekonomicheskie esse. Teoriya issledovaniya, fakty i politika [Economic Essays. Research Theory, Facts and Politics]. Moscow, 2003, 156 p.

3. Kantorovich L.V. Matematicheskie metody organizatsii planirovaniya proizvodstva [Mathematical Methods for Organizing Production Planning]. Moscow, Izd-vo Leningradskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 1939, 67 p.

4. Afonina I.A., Ivanova O.D., Panasevich O.E. O konferentsii “Strategicheskoe planirovanie v usloviyakh narastaniya vneshnikh ugroz: neobkhodimost’ mobilizatsii vnutrennikh resursov dlya razvitiya Rossii” [On the Conference “Strategic Planning in the Face of Growing External Threats: the Need to Mobilize Internal Resources for the Development of Russia”]. Mikroekonomika, 2014, no 6, pp. 138–144.

5. Buzgalin A.V., Kolganov A.I. Vozrozhdenie planirovaniya, uroki (politiko-ekonomicheskii diskurs) [Revival of Planning, Lessons (Political and Economic Discourse)]. Problemy teorii praktiki upravleniya, 2016, no 1, pp. 8–18.

6. Bukhval’d E.M. Strategicheskii dolgostroi; viden li itog? [Strategic Long-Term Construction; is There Any Result?]. ETAP. Ekonomicheskaya teoriya, analiz, praktika, 2017, no 6, pp. 33–47.

Resilience as a Strategic Imperative in the Age of Uncertainty

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.58-62

The article examines resilience as a new approach to supporting economic growth under the global uncertainty and sudden shocks. We describe resilience as a method for dynamic stabilization of complex systems, as a new imperative for growth policy, and as a new standard of risk management.

Источники:

1. Smorodinskaya N.V., Katukov D.D. Raspredelennoe proizvodstvo v usloviyakh shoka pandemii: uyazvimost’, rezil’entnost’ i novyi etap globalizatsii [Distributed Production Under the Pandemic Shock: Vulnerability, Resilience and the New Stage of Globalization]. Voprosy ekonomiki, 2021. №12 (V pechati.)

2. Walker J., Cooper M. Genealogies of resilience. Security Dialogue, 2011, Vol. 42, no 2, pp. 143–160.

3. OECD, SIDA. Resilience systems analysis: Learning and recommendations report. Paris: OECD Publishing, 2017.

4. Smorodinskaya N.V. Uslozhnenie organizatsii  ekonomicheskikh sistem v usloviyakh nelineinogo razvitiya [Growing Organizational Complexity of Economic Systems Under Non-Linear Development]. Vestnik Instituta ekonomiki RAN, 2017, no 5, pp. 104–115.

5. OECD. A systemic resilience approach to dealing with COVID-19 and future shocks. OECD Policy Responses to Coronavirus (COVID-19). 2020.

6. Sreedevi R., Saranga H. Uncertainty and supply chain risk: The moderating role of supply chain flexibility in risk mitigation. International Journal of Production Economics, 2017, Vol. 193, pp. 332–342.

7. Linkov I., Trump B. D. The science and practice of resilience. Cham, Springer, 2019.

8. Ivanov D., Dolgui A., Sokolov B. Ripple effect in the supply chain: Definitions, frameworks and future research perspectives. Handbook of ripple effects in the supply chain. Cham, Springer, 2019, pp. 1–33.

9. PIIE. Rebuilding the global economy. PIIE briefing 21-1. Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2021, Washington, DC.

10. Smorodinskaya N. V., Katukov D.D. Rezil’entnost’ ekonomicheskikh sistem v epokhu globalizatsii i vnezapnykh shokov [Resilience of Economic Systems in the Age of Globalization and Sudden Shocks]. Vestnik Instituta ekonomiki RAN, 2021, no 5, pp. 93–115

11. Smorodinskaya N. V., Malygin V. E., Katukov D.D. Rol’ endogennykh mekhanizmov i faktora slozhnosti v dostizhenii sbalansirovannogo ekonomicheskogo rosta [The Role of Endogenous Mechanisms and the Factor of Complexity in Achieving Sustainable Economic Growth]. Vestnik Instituta ekonomiki RAN, 2020, no 1, pp. 113–129.

12. Root H.L. Network origins of the global economy: East vs. West in a complex systems perspective. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2020.

On the Projects of the RF Central Bank Dedicated to the Financial Market Development

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.63-67

The Bank of Russia in its systemic documents, published in 2020, presents solution of a wide range of topical issues of the Russian financial system and economy related to providing the real sector with long-term money, the lack of which is one of the key factors restraining the growth of investments and the Russian economy for years. However, implementation of measures proposed in the documents may take more than one year until the economy begins to feel their effect. In this regard, it seems important to consider more systemic mechanisms that will allow to expand the volume of long-term money. In particular, we are talking about approaches based on interaction of the national central bank and the national ministry of finance. Besides, more and more countries in the world are actively applying the indicated mechanisms.

Источники:

1. Osnovnye napravleniya razvitiya finansovogo rynka Rossiiskoi Federatsii na 2022 god i period 2023 i 2024 godov: Proekt ot 30 sentyabrya 2021 g. [Main Directions of Development of the Financial Market of the Russian Federation for 2022 and the Period of 2023 and 2024: Draft Dated September 30, 2021.]. TsBR, available at: https://cbr.ru/Content/Document/File/124658/onrfr_project_2021-09-30.pdf.

2. Osnovnye napravleniya edinoi gosudarstvennoi denezhno-kreditnoi politiki na 2022 god i period 2023 i 2024 godov [Guidelines for the Single State Monetary Policy for 2022 and the Period of 2023 and 2024]. TsBR, available at: https://cbr.ru/about_br/publ/ondkp/on_2022_2024/

3. Aganbegyan A.G., Ershov M.V. Ne stoit melochit’sya. Spasut li Rossiyu dlinnye den’gi? [One Shouldn’t Waste Time on Trifles. Will Long Money Save Russia?]. Argumenty i fakty, 2020, August, 10.

4. Poslanie Prezidenta RF Federal’nomu sobraniyu [Message of the President of the Russian Federation to the Federal Assembly]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, 2021, April, 21, available at: http://www.kremlin.ru/events/president/transcripts/messages.

5. Ershov M.V. Mir v 2020 godu: novye problemy obnazhayut sistemnye izmeneniya v ekonomike [The World in 2020: New Problems Reveal Systemic Changes in the Economy]. Voprosy ekonomiki, 2020, no 12, pp. 5–23.

Institutional Rent in Metallurgy: Ways of Use

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.180.2021.68-75

The article describes the possible use of institutional rent of the largest metallurgical companies associated with their non-market advantages. The author identifies the channels for obtaining such rent, including differences in the tax burden, difference in the rates of involved financial resources for companies operating in different institutional conditions, state support and benefits from peculiarities of the vertical organization of production. Some estimates of institutional rent are obtained and questions are raised about the income and expenses level, fair for the economy, of the companies that receive it. The directions, in which large companies spend the received rent, are highlighted; it is emphasized that withdrawal of “windfall revenues” can be made only after they are compared with non-market expenses of companies, imputed by the state. At the same time, information on such costs is scattered, inaccurate and therefore requires serious assessment and monitoring. The author substantiates an approach wherein the state and big business are interested to seek a mutually beneficial use of the received institutional rent.

Источники:

 

1. Blokhin A.A. Institutsional’naya renta v mnogourovnevoi ekonomike [Institutional Rent in a Multilevel Economy]. Problemy prognozirovaniya, 2019, no 4, pp. 16–26.

2. Blokhin A.A., Lomakin-Rumyantsev I.V., Naumov S.A. Al’fa-biznes na rossiiskom prodovol’stvennom rynke [Alfa-Business in the Russian Food Market]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2019, no 6, pp. 68–77, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.164.2019.68-77.

3. Blokhin A.A., Dranev S.Ya. Razlichiya institutsional’nykh uslovii deyatel’nosti kompanii raznogo razmera na primere chernoi metallurgii [Differences in the Institutional Environment for Companies of Different Sizes by the Case of Ferrous Metallurgy]. Mir novoi ekonomiki, 2019, no 1, pp. 36–47, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.26794/2220-6469-2019-13-1-36-47.

4. Prikaz FNS Rossii ot 30 maya 2007 g. N MM-3-06/333@ (v red. ot 10 maya 2012 g.) “Ob utverzhdenii Kontseptsii sistemy planirovaniya vyezdnykh nalogovykh proverok” [Order of the Federal Tax Service of Russia Dated May 30, 2007 No. MM-3-06/333@ (as Amended on May 10, 2012) “On Approval of the Concept of the Planning System for Field Tax Audits”]. Konsul’tantPlyus, available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_55729/fcaa26fb2b72a7ef1b1bdb6904804f9a2a7d2d3c/

5. Informatsiya Federal’noi nalogovoi sluzhby ot 23 maya 2019 g. “Sredneotraslevye pokazateli, kharakterizuyushchie finansovo-khozyaistvennuyu deyatel’nost’ nalogoplatel’shchikov za 2018 god” [Information from the Federal Tax Service of May 23, 2019 “Average Industry Indicators Characterizing Financial and Economic Activities of Taxpayers in 2018”]. Garant.ru, available at: https://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/72147454/

6. Finansovoe zdorov’e stal’noi otrasli 2020. Analiz finansovykh pokazatelei publichnykh kompanii — proizvoditelei stali [Financial Health of the Steel Industry 2020. Financial Performance Analysis of Public Companies — Steel Producers]. Kiev, OOO “GMK Tsentr’, 2020.