The study is devoted to comparing the characteristics of the macroeconomic dynamics of the US, Germany, China and Russia, with the goal of establishing not only differences and similar elements of this dynamics, but also identifying the most expedient ways to further implement the instruments of the macroeconomic policy pursued. Counteraction to the economic crisis presupposes institutional corrections, since the standard recipes of macroeconomic policy are weak in changing the situation, since the importance of, for example, financial institutions, the banking system, etc. However, the coherence of macroaggregates needs to be taken into account, moreover, it has its own peculiarities in each country, thus, the general methods of macroeconomic policy require detailed elaboration based on the development task and the current dynamics. The expediency of a moderately expansionary monetary policy for the Russian economy is shown, and the comparative and comparative method of analysis confirms that the USA and Russia demonstrate a similar dynamics of macroaggregates in general properties, Germany and China are also close to each other, although some parameters and connections are different. However, in the US and Russia (Fisher’s growth model), the decline in inflation has little effect on growth, in Germany and China, growth is accompanied by inflation (Schumpeter’s growth). The result of the comparative analysis using the matrix of pair correlations and obtained regressions should be used to correct macroeconomic policy measures in the countries examined. In addition, this comparison will prevent governments from mechanically copying macroeconomic instruments.
Calculation data of the multifactorial “Strategic Matrix” model methodology showed stability of the relatively low value of Russia’s integral index. However, just such static character of the calculated indicator means an increase of problems in the Russian society, which is evidently shown by hard decline in social support for the authorities activities. Another reelection of V.V. Putin as the President of Russia did not result in prospects for a way out of the crisis in the minds of Russian citizens.
When calculating the final integral index for the Russian Federation, determined according to the methodology of multifactor “Strategic matrix” model, the authors once again noted the low level of this indicator in 2015. It has not changed in comparison with the previous year. But in the factors context they have identified a tendency of compensating the key social indices lowering due to the growth of the secondary ones. Its presence is confirmed by opinion polls of the Public Opinion Foundation, that is, by how the Russians themselves assess changes in their daily life and the state of affairs in solving the problems they face.
Analyzing actual data of the RF subjects social development, the authors note: as follows from calculation data of integral indicators, defined on the basis of the multifactor model methodology “Strategic matrix of the RF region”, developed by the Institute for Economic Strategies, negative economic trends have not yet practically effected the population living conditions. On the contrary, the all-Russian 2014 final index has even slightly increased compared to the previous year index.
As follows from the calculation of the integral indices of the RF subjects social potential, determined based on the multifactor model methodology called “Strategic Matrix of the RF region”, worked out by the Institute for Economic Strategies, the development of social conditions cannot be considered even and uniform. Good data is demonstrated in those three of the nine factors that are directly related to reanimation of economic growth in the country — these factors are “Employment”, “Living conditions” and “Crime”.
The article compares the causes and consequences of financial economic crises of 1991 and 2008 in Finland. The basic measures for stabilizing economic situation in the country are listed.