The European Union (EU) and Kazakhstan have established close economic and trade relations much thanks to EU Strategy for Central Asia and Kazakh state program Path to Europe. Bilateral trade have been growing steadily since 2002. Today EU is Kazakhstan’s first trade partner with annual turnover of ,1 billion representing a half of the country total trade in 2016 and the largest investor, ahead of Russia and China. EU imports from Kazakhstan are dominated by energy (minerals, fuels) products. The main EU exports to Kazakhstan include machinery and transport equipment, other manufactured goods and chemicals. In 2015 Kazakhstan has joined WTO with the EU consistently supporting Kazakhstan’s accession. Over the past two decades, Kazakhstan and EU have developed a strong and mutually beneficial energy cooperation. Major EU-based energy companies have significant investments in the Kazakh oil and gas industry. Currently, around 70% of Kazakhstan oil exports go to Europe, corresponding to 6.5% of the EU total oil imports. The 2017-address by the President Nursultan Nazarbayev comprise an industrial strategy aimed at modernizing Kazakhstan’s economy by diversifying it away from overdependence on extractive industries, targeting R&D and joining the top 30 most developed countries by 2050. Therefore Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement signed in 2015 offers new opportunities for Kazakhstan and EU and could be interesting for partners in the Eurasian Economic Union.
The article describes technical and economic issues of providing defense potential in the aerospace sector under in conditions of increasing military and technological challenges and threats and implementing the strategy of import substitution. The paper presents analysis of the information-technological problems of development of domestic military-industrial complex enterprises — developers of aerospace defense systems, it identifies reserves for increasing their efficiency through introducing integrated information systems. On the example of “VNIIRT” JSC the paper presents prospects for implementing the lean manufacturing concept on the basis of product lifecycle management technology. It gives comparative characteristics of cooperation business models in the defense industry both in foreign countries and in Russia. The article identifies technological and organizational-economic factors of developing cooperation of the final integrators, sub-integrators and components suppliers in the military products manufacturing. It sets out system-forming elements of a risk-oriented approach to forming co-operation in the defense-industrial complex. The authors propose a mathematical model of risk indicator for the company-finalist when choosing the composition of enterprises participating in cooperation, based on aggregation of private indicators of scientific and technical, industrial and technological, financial and economic risks. They formulate long-term objectives for the proposed approach implementation with application of neural network technology.
Deng Xiaoping’s reforms gave farmers the opportunity to create 180 million small farms working at a lease contract, which then became the basis for forming a strong voluntary cooperative sector. These small production entities ensured two, three times growth of agricultural production. The next stage of reforms was formation of the sector of small and medium-sized industrial enterprises located mainly in rural areas and created on a collective (cooperative) basis. Namely they, rather than large-scale enterprises, have converted China into the world’s factory. And they ensured that arrival in China of large Western corporations and creation of special economic zones did not cause the collapse of the Chinese industry (as it was in Russia) and stimulated further growth of the Chinese economy. This experience of China is fully applicable to Russia.
For guiding the process of European integration to address economic development goals it is necessary to develop and adopt a common strategy of commercial-economic policy of the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU), the Concept of integrated industrial and agricultural policies, as well as plans for their implementation. This involves harmonization of national and EAEU development policies: industrial, agricultural, scientific-technical, energy, transport etc. Subsequently it is necessary to create strategic planning system of the EAEU development, including long-term projections, the medium-term concepts and strategies for commercial, industrial, agricultural, scientific-technical policy, the main aspects of socio-economic, monetary and fiscal policies, as well as interstate programs and action plans for their implementation. As soon as possible it is required to develop and adopt strategic plan of EAEU development and its implementation program for the next decade. Such approach to planning development of Eurasian economic integration will allow to fully realize its potential and to achieve maximum macroeconomic effect in the member states.
The actual results of the Russian President’s visit to Latin America in summer 2014 and signed there documents allow to assume that the trip was quite pragmatic: to seize the opportunities for expansion of the Russian economic cooperation with close to us and friendly developing states. Cooperation, which has become even more important in the context of sanctions introduced by the West against Russia. In his interview with Alexander Ageev and Alexander Sidorov, director of the Institute of Latin American, Russian Academy of Sciences, Vladimir Davydov told about economic and geopolitical effects of the new vector of cooperation with Latin American countries.
The author analyzes the place of basic ethic question — the problem of individual choice — in the polemics of A. Smith with B. Mandeville, theorems of R. Coase, K. Arrow, in “prisoner’s dilemma” and other liberal theories. She arrives at the conclusion that modern scholars, like representatives of classical school, consider ethical behavior of human as a key driver of economic development and welfare. The author also concludes that spiritual and moral education is a particularly important social good.
Neither Russia, nor China don’t aspire to create any unions and the alliances directed against the third countries.
If we put aside political crackling and sensation, offered solutions of contemporary economic problems consist in their transfer onto our children and grandchildren.
Year 2010, declared the Year of Russia in France and the Year of France in Russia, was special in terms of development of Russian-French cooperation in the sphere of humanities, which was happening at the background of an unprecedented by its intensity political, cultural, economic and scientific exchange between the two countries.