The article examines the structure of the US public debt, makes comparative analysis of the periods of the US national debt sharp increase and intensification of the economic domination policy. It is proved that national debt is an instrument organically introduced into the economic mechanism of the US economy, which contributes to maintaining social stability in society. When examining the components of the US public debt, attention is paid to the social component, including medical care, pensions and migration burden on the US budget, as well as to role of fiscal policy in the development of the US national economy. It is revealed that the structure of the US national economy, despite the trends of the economic policy changes announced by the president, remains unchanged, inertial growth, practically not associated with the activities of the new US administration, continues. Attention is drawn to foreign counterparties, holders of US securities, including Russia. The article considers the possibility for the US Congress to raise the national debt ceiling as an instrument of internal political opposition to the current administration of the US president and the presidential policy. In case of significant delay in raising the national debt ceiling by the US Congress, which will also become a factor in strengthening sanctions pressure on Russia, our country can incur real losses.