The "Economic Strategies" journal

2022 #5. Noblesse Oblige




Foreign Direct Investment and Industrial Policy (Based on Examples of Certain Countries)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.6-11

The goal of the study is an attempt to rethink the role of Foreign Direct Investment, Industrial Policy and others phenomenon.

The author propose a new analysis of them in today’s conditions and circumstances. This article uses statistics published by OECD and IMF. The article pays particular attention to different approaches of certain countries (USSR, Russia, Italy, South Korea) in the field of import of Foreign Direct Investment and in the field of the Industrial Policy. Based on many years of the author’s experience in the Russian banking sphere and Russian business, the author puts forward certain economic advice to regulators in Russia.

References:

 

1. IMF. World Economic Outlook — Rising Caseloads, a Disrupted Recovery, and Higher Inflation. Washington, DC, 2022.

2. IMF. World Economic Outlook — War Sets Back the Global Recovery. Washington, DC, 2022.

3. Soboleva Inna. Les experts russes redoutent une guerre mondiale d’ici dix ans. FR. Russia Beyond, 2013, April 16, available at: https://fr.rbth.com/tech/2013/04/16/les_experts_russes_redoutent_une_guerre_mondiale_dici_dix_ans_23165.

4. Glazyev S. How to win the war. Top War, 2014, July 26, available at: https:www.en.topwar.ru.

5. Kondratieff N. The World Economy and its Conjunctures during and after the War. Moscow, International Kondratieff Foundation, 2004.

6. Trotsky L. La courbe du d velopppement capitaliste. Marxists, 1923, Avril 21, available at: https://www.marxists.org/francais/trotsky/oeuvres/1923/04/lt19230421.htm.

7. Pokidchenko M.G. Sushchestvuet li ekonomicheskii tsikl? [Is there an Economic Cycle]. Voprosy teoreticheskoi ekonomiki, 2017, no 1, pp. 66–73, available at: http://questionset.ru/files/arch/2017/2017-N1/VTE_2017_1.pdf.

8. Ershov M.V, Lokhmachev V.F., Tatuzov V.Yu, Tanasova A.S. Global’nyi krizis (sravnitel’nyi analiz tsiklicheskikh protsessov) [About Tendencies of Global Crisis]. Bankovskoe delo, 2009, no 5, pp. 16–20, available at: https://www.elibrary.ru/contents.asp?id=33338082.

9.FDI in Fugures. Paris, OECD, 2022, April, available at: www.oecd.org.

10. Putin V. Economic Tasks. Working Day, 2012, January, 30, available at: http://archive.premier.gov.ru/eng/events/news/17888/

11. Ministerial Decree No. 328 validating the State Program of the Russian Federation “Development of industry and increase of its competitiveness” (аpril 2014), available at: http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/rus170671.pdf.

12. Federal Law No. 488-FZ of December 31, 2014 “On Industrial Policy”. FAO, available at: https://www.fao.org/faolex/results/details/ru/c/LEX-FAOC170671/

13. Vstrecha s chlenami pravitel’stva [Meeting with Governments Members]. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, 2022, 23 marta, available at: http://en.kremlin.ru/events/president/news/68037.

14. Idrisov G.I. Promyshlennaya politika Rossii v sovremennykh usloviyakh [Towards Modern Industrial Policy for Russia]. Moscow, Izd-vo Instituta Gaidara, 2016.

15. Strukturno-investitsionnaya politika v tselyakh ustoichivogo rosta i modernizatsii ekonomiki: Nauchnyi doklad [Structural and Investment Policy for Sustainable Growth and Modernization of the Economy: Scientific Report]. Pod red. V.V. Ivantera. Moscow, INP RAN, 2016.

The Public-Private Partnership Market as a Factor of Economic Growth in the Regions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.12-21

The purpose of this article is to assess the regions of the Russian Federation by the level of PPP development from the perspective

of their infrastructural and socio-economic development and the impact of PPP on accelerating their economic growth. To do this, the following tasks are being implemented: assessment of the general characteristics of the PPP market for the period 2006–2021, in particular, public and private contributions to PPP projects, distribution of investments in the areas under consideration; analysis of accumulated investments in the PPP market for the period 2006–2021, assessment of their impact on investment attractiveness and economic growth of regions based on the distribution by federal districts and regions of the Russian Federation; analysis of the market of large PPP projects for the period 2006–2021 from the position of influence on the strategic development of regions, its distribution by federal districts and regions of the Russian Federation; based on the results of the study, determining the top 10 most developed regions for the use of PPP mechanisms.

The methodology of the study is an analysis of the distribution of the classical PPP market by regions and districts based on the

construction of tables and diagrams. To characterize the overall economic and infrastructural development of the regions, PPP

projects in the housing, social, transport and IT spheres were considered.

The results of the study are that the assessment of the level of economic and infrastructural development of the regions is given; the strategic importance of PPP projects for the regions (especially large ones) is substantiated; it is determined that the successful implementation of PPP projects is a factor in the economic growth of the regions. Based on the analysis, the 10 most developed regions are identified from the point of view of the use of PPP mechanisms. The perspective of the study is to use its results to expand the PPP market, in particular, in territories in need of economic development. At the same time, in order to expand the territorial coverage of the PPP market, it is necessary to create conditions for the implementation of such projects in order to ensure the economic growth of the regions.

References:

 

1. Chumakov I.I. Gosudarstvenno-chastnoe partnerstvo kak osnovnaya forma partnerstva gosudarstva i biznesa [Public-private Partnership as the Main Form of Partnership Between the State and the Business]. Aktual’nye problemy i perspektivy razvitiya ekonomiki: rossiiskii i zarubezhnyi opyt, 2017, no 11, 29–32.

2. Sukharev O.S. Instituty regional’nogo razvitiya: kontseptual’no-prakticheskii analiz organizatsionnykh izmenenii [Regional Development Institutions: Conceptual and Practical Analysis of Organizational Changes]. Ekonomicheskii analiz: teoriya i praktika, 2012, no 4 (259), pp. 2–12.

3. Sukharev O.S., Voronchikhina E.N. Tipy tekhnologicheskogo razvitiya regionov: struktura tekhnologii i investitsii [Types of Regions’ Technological Development: Structure of Technologies and Investments]. Investitsii v Rossii, 2019, no 7, pp. 24–36.

Contemporary Narratives for Applying International Economic Sanctions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.22-29

Recently the role of sanction restrictions has sharply increased in the practice of regulating economic relations between countries,

meanwhile their application is determined by many factors. At the same time, in the context of intensifying geopolitical competition and growing volatility of the global economy, the dynamics of sanctions application raises more and more questions. On the one hand, economic sanctions are an instrument of coercion for target countries, and on the other hand they make international exchange and cross-border mobility of the factor more and more vulnerable. Heterogeneous nature of the economic sanctions’ impact on sending and target countries does not allow us to say that sanctions are an unambiguous instrument of an effective trade policy.

This article analyzes the key narratives of economic sanctions regimes in all their diversity at the present stage, new forms and

mechanisms of sanctions, as well as their consequences for various aspects of life of the world community.

References:

 

1. Spiegelberger W.R. Anatomy of a Muddle: U.S. Sanctions against Rusal and Oleg Deripaska. Russia Political Economy Project, Foreign Policy Research Institute, 2019, April 29, available at: https://www.fpri.org/article/2019/04/anatomy-of-a-muddle-u-s-sanctions-against-rusal-and-oleg-deripaska/

2. Sanger D.E., Benner K., Goldstein V. Huawei and Top Executive Face Criminal Charges in the U.S. New York Times, 2019, January 28, available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/28/us/politics/meng-wanzhou-huawei-iran.html.

3. Hufbauer G.C., Jung E. What’s new in economic sanctions? European Economic Review, 2020, vol. 130, iss. C, pp. 103572.

4. Bapat N.A., Heinrich T., Kobayashi Y., Morgan T.C. Determinants of Sanctions Effectiveness: Sensitivity Analysis Using New Data. International Interactions, 2013, vol. 39 (1), pp. 9–98.

5. Early B.R., Spice R. Economic Sanctions, International Institutions, and Sanctions Busters: When Does Institutionalized Cooperation Help Sanctioning Efforts? Foreign Policy Analysis, 201, vol. 11 (3), pp. 339–360.

6. Peksen D. Autocracies and Economic Sanctions: The Divergent Impact of Authoritarian Regime Type on Sanctions Success. Defence and Peace Economics, 2017, vol. 30 (3), pp. 253–268.

7. Connolly G.E. Economic Sanctions. Agencies Assess Impacts on Targets, and Studies Suggest Several Factors Contribute to Sanctions’ Effectiveness. Report to Congressional Requesters, GAO-20-145, United States Government Accountability Office (GAO), 2019, October, p. 19.

8. Krustev V.L., Morgan T.C. Ending Economic Coercion: Domestic Politics and International Bargaining. Conflict Management and Peace Science, 2011, vol. 28 (4), pp. 351–376.

9. Nooruddin I., Payton A.L. Dynamics of Influence in International Politics: The ICC, BIAs, and Economic Sanctions. Journal of Peace Research, 2010, vol. 47 (6), pp. 711–721.

10. Golliard M.M. Economic Sanctions: Embargo on Stage. Theory and Empirical Evidence. Fribourg, University of Tampere, 2013, January, pp. 107, 108.

Phenomena of Quantum Economy

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.30-41

The paper undertakes to analyse the changes in the economic agent which it is subject to when described from the perspective

of different worldviews. The mechanistic, electrodynamic and relativistic quantum worldviews suggest different interpretations of the properties of the object, hence describe economic objects different in nature. Reliance on physicalist methods makes it possible to reveal an economic agent displaying solidarity and to outline its preconditions. The goal of this research is reconsidering the object of economics and revealing its new properties. The first task is to describe the economic agent in mechanistic terms, the second task is to add to it the properties that are drawn from quantum mechanics.

The paper looks for analogies and metaphors of such phenomena as tunnel effect and duality of microparticles. It also suggests

a system of institutional organization for regulating demand for different categories of goods.

The theory of institutions is interpreted through the analogies of the electrodynamic worldview. The principles of behavioral economics are presented in terms of the quantum-relative worldview.

The article reveals a new production factor that allows the agent to exchange the labour performed in the system of informal institutions for its analogies in the formal system. It is inferred that the peculiarities of behaviour are formed by institutions and divide agents of demand into groups. The metaphors of quantum-field experiments are revealed to explain the mechanisms of influence on these groups depending on their preferences. The paper explores the agent of demand — the purchaser — consisting of multiple households. Economic analogies are searched in the process of interpreting the law of demand and supply.

References:

 

1. Mirowski P. More Heat than Light: Economics as Social Physics, Physics as Nature’s Economics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1989, p. 3.

2. Stepin V.S. Teoreticheskoe znanie [Theoretical Knowledge]. Moscow, Progress-Traditsiya, 2000, 744 p.

3. Churilin M.Yu. Vliyanie progressa v estestvennykh naukakh na osmyslenie ponyatiya homo economicus [Influence of Progress in Sciences on the Understanding of the Notion of Homo Economicus]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2018, no 1, pp. 198–207.

4. Avtonomov V.S. Model’ cheloveka v ekonomicheskoi nauke [Human Model in Economics]. Saint Petersburg, Ekonomicheskaya shkola, 1998, p. 62. (Seriya: Eticheskaya ekonomiya: Issledovaniya po etike, kul’ture i filosofii khozyaistva.)

5. Fridmen M. Metodologiya pozitivnoi ekonomicheskoi nauki [Methodology of Positive Economics]. THESIS, 1994, vyp. 4, p. 36.

6. Grebnev L.S. Chelovek v ekonomike: teoretiko-metodologicheskii analiz [Human in Economics: Theoretical and Methodological Analysis]. Natsional’nyi issledovatel’skii universitet “Vysshaya shkola ekonomiki”, p. 22, available at: https://www.hse.ru/data/xf/2013/08/20/1291716033/dissertation.pdf.

7. Inglkhart R. Kul’turnaya evolyutsiya. Kak izmenyayutsya chelovecheskie motivatsii i kak eto menyaet mir [Cultural Evolution. How Human Motivations are Changing and How it is Changing the World]. Moscow, Mysl’, 2018, p. 21.

Neurocommunity — the Future of Humanity?

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.42-51

Neurodigital technologies qualitatively and quantitatively expand the possibilities of human behavior control, creating conditions for ensuring a targeted cognitive-psychological state of both an individual and groups within a neurocommunity. One of the key vectors for applying such new management opportunities is imprinting on a person of a positive perception of the surrounding reality, which contributes to maintaining socio-political stability in the state and society and also increases the efficiency of individual employees and their teams. Identification of psychosemantic qualities of a person based on analysis of his interests and preferences allows to form and imprint a cognitive-reflexive model of identification and interpretation of what is happening, adapted to a particular person, which serves as a source of actions for person and groups of his like-minded people and provides stability of the society, which is gradually acquiring the features of a neurocommunity.

References:

 

1. Vannevar Bush. As We May Think. The Atlantic, available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/?single_page=true.

2. Ageev A.I. Golovokruzhenie intellekta [Intelligence Dizziness]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2019, no 5 (163), p. 5, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.163.2019.5.

3. Denisov A.A., Sablin V.A. Rezul’taty aprobatsii sistemy upravleniya v postindustrial’nykh tekhnologicheskikh sredakh [Results of the Control System Approbation in Post-industrial Technological Environments]. Mezhdunarodnyi nauchno-issledovatel’skii zhurnal “Evraziiskii soyuz uchenykh”, 2020, no 10 (79), pp. 16–21. (Seriya: Tekhnicheskie nauki.)

4. Lepskii V.E. Problema sborki sub”ektov v informatsionnykh voinakh [Problem of the Subjects Assembly in Information Wars]. Informatsionnye voiny, 2019, no 4 (52), pp. 2–8.

5. Loginov E.L. Ispol’zovanie tekhnologii BIG DATA dlya protivodeistviya massovym besporyadkam v usloviyakh nedostatka informatsii i neopredelennosti razvitiya situatsii [Using BIG DATA Technologies to Counter Riots in the Face of Lack of Information and Uncertainty of the Situation Development]. Iskusstvennyi intellekt (bol’shie dannye) na sluzhbe politsii: Sb. statei mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Artificial Intelligence (Big Data) in the Police Service: Collection of Articles of the International Scientific-practical Conference]. Moscow, Akademiya upravleniya MVD Rossii, 2020, pp. 145–150.

6. Ageev A.I., Loginov E.L., Shkuta A.A. Kitai kak neiroinformatsionnaya megamatritsa: tsifrovye tekhnologii strukturirovaniya kognitivnykh ansamblei poryadka [China as a Neural-Information Megamatrix: Digital Technologies for Structuring Cognitive Ensembles of Order]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 1 (175), pp. 50–61, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.175.2021.50-61.

7. Raikov A.N. Komp’yuternaya podderzhka refleksivnykh protsessov v upravlenii [Computer Support for Reflexive Processes in Management]. Sb. “Psikhologiya i ee prilozheniya” [Psychology and Its Applications]. Ezhegodnik Rossiiskogo psikhologicheskogo obshchestva, 2002, no 1, p. 52.

On the Problem of Applying Knowledge in Risk Management Systems

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.52-59

The article dwells on the concept of building intelligent, knowledge-based decision support systems. A formalized risk management system is proposed. Based on the system, the author puts forward a solution to a particular problem from the banking sector in implementing projects related to distressed assets. Description and requirements to the tool for development, implementation and use of expert systems are presented.

References:

 

1. Shikaeva V.V. Pravovoi navigator dlya biznesa [Legal Navigator for Business]. Izdatel’skie resheniya, 2020, 162 p.

2. Ueno X., Isidzuka M. Predstavlenie i ispol’zovanie znanii [Representation and Use of Knowledge]. Moscow, Mir, 1989, 220 p.

3. Leong-Khong B., Plagman B. Sistemy slovarei-spravochnikov dannykh: Administrirovanie, realizatsiya, ispol’zovanie [Systems of Data Dictionary-Reference Books: Administration, Implementation, Use]. Moscow, Finansy i statistika, 1986, 311 p.

4. Forsait R. Ekspertnye sistemy. Printsipy raboty i primery [Expert Systems. Operating Principles and Examples]. Moscow, Radio i svyaz’, 1987, 224 p.

5. Rutkovskaya D., Pilin’skii M., Rutkovskii L. Neironnye seti, geneticheskie algoritmy i nechetkie sistemy [Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Systems]. Moscow, Goryachaya liniya — Telekom, 2013, 384 p.

6. Terano T., Asai K., Sugeno M. Prikladnye nechetkie sistemy [Applied Fuzzy Systems]. Moscow, Mir, 1993, 368 p.

7. Zade L. Ponyatie lingvisticheskoi peremennoi i ego primenenie k prinyatiyu priblizhennykh reshenii [Concept of a Linguistic Variable and Its Application to Approximate Decision Making]. Moscow, Mir, 1976, 167 p.

Energy-Informational Cosmism of Russia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.60-65

Earth and space are fractal partners of the world system, whose structural, functional properties and characteristics are similar. They are equally subject to general laws of vital functions and cyclic development, mutual transformation of substance, energy and information, in the process of interaction and evolution generating common space-time categories, common material, biophysical and noospheric formations.

References:

 

1. Fursa E.Ya. Mirozdanie — mir voln, rezonansov i… nichego bolee [Universe is a World of Waves, Resonances and … Nothing More]. Minsk, UniversalPress, 2007, 480 p.

2. Tsiolkovskii K.E. Put’ k luchistomu Chelovechestvu [Path to Radiant Humanity]. Khimiya i zhizn’, 1977, no 1.

3. Chizhevskii A.L. Zemlya i Kosmos. Zemnoe echo kosmicheskikh bur’ [Earth and Space. Terrestrial Echo of Space Storms]. Moscow, Akademicheskii proekt, 2015, 272 p.

4. Bushuev V.V., Kopylov I.P. Energokosmizm Rossii [Energy Cosmism of Russia]. Moscow, Energiya, 2003, 140 p.

5. Bushuev V.V. Energiya i sud’ba Rossii [Energy and the Fate of Russia]. Moscow, Energiya, 2014, 292 p.

6. Bushuev V.V., Klepach A.N., Pervukhin V.V. Tsikly rossiiskoi (vostochno-evraziiskoi) tsivilizatsii [Cycles of Russian (East Eurasian) Civilization]. Moscow, Energiya, 2020, 102 p.

7. Tulupov A.V. Rod Severa. Russkie giperboreitsy [Genus of the North. Russian Hyperboreans]. Moscow, Algoritm, 2013, 528 p.

8. Dobrocheev O.V. Mekhanika ochen’ bol’shikh sistem prirody, zhizni i razuma [Mechanics of Very Large Systems of Nature, Life and Mind]. Moscow, TEIS, 2019.

9. Ivanov Yu.N. Ritmodinamika [Rhythmodynamics]. Moscow, Energiya, 2007, 221 p.

10. Bushuev V.V. Osnovy energologii [Energology Fundamentals]. Moscow, Energiya, 2020.

11. Kaznacheev V.P. Mysli o budushchem. Intellekt, golograficheskaya Vselennaya Kozyreva [Thoughts about the Future. Intelligence, Kozyrev’s Holographic Universe]. Novosibirsk, Sibirskoe nauchnoe izdatel’stvo, 2008, 192 p.

12. Chizhevskii A.L. Kosmicheskii pul’s zhizni [Cosmic Pulse of Life]. Moscow, Mysl’, 1995, 766 p.

13. Klepach A.N., Dobrocheev O.V. Ansambl’ ekonomicheskikh voln ili turbulentnaya gipoteza ekonomiki [Ensemble of Economic Waves or Turbulent Hypothesis of the Economy]. Filosofiya khozyaistva, 2015, no 6, pp. 180–191.

14. Balakshin O.B. Garmoniya samorazvitiya v prirode i obshchestve: podobie i analogii [Harmony of Self-development in Nature and Society: Similarities and Analogies]. Moscow, URSS; Izd-vo LKI, 2008, 341 p.

New Energy and Raw Material Currency Unit for International Trade Settlements

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.78–86

The article elaborates in detail the project of creating a neutral international currency for settlements in international trade — ERMU (Energy and Raw Material Unit), the purchasing power of which does not depend on political and economic actions of any country, nor on the exchange rate of national currencies. ERMU isn’t bound to any national currency, its purchasing power is nominated in a strictly specified amount of basic export energy raw materials of world trade — gas, oil, coal, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, mineral fertilizers, wheat and gold.

Switching of international trade to ERMU will allow us to avoid the dictatorship of dollar and euro and to break the unnatural order in international trade, established after the Second World War, under which all countries traded with each other for the national currency of one country — the US dollar. In addition, the introduction of the ERMU will render meaningless any arrests and confiscation by Western countries of the assets of countries and individuals objectionable to them.

 

Dogma of the Superiors Infallibility

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.87-91

Review of the book by the famous Russian economist, sociologist and politician V.L. Inozemtsev “Economy without dogmas: how the US is creating a new economic order”, published in 2021 by Alpina-Publisher.

 

Moscow — Third Rome (and the Fourth do not Happen)

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.107-113

The talk of “vision of the future” that has been going on in recent years actually ignores the fact that in our history this problem has been solved. Having proclaimed: “Moscow is the Third Rome,” Elder Philotheus did not simply formulate an ideologeme, due to the necessity of that time. He expressed the idea of our statehood, which developed from the very beginning of its formation and determined the movement of our country.

References:

 

1. Kulikov D.E., Sergeitsev T.N. Ideologiya russkoi gosudarstvennosti [The Ideology of Russian Statehood]. Saint Petersburg, Piter, 2020.

2. Bogdanov A.A. Tektologiya [Tectology]. Moscow, Finansy, 2003.

3. Bogdanov A.A. Nauka ob obshchestvennom soznanii: Poznanie s istoricheskoi tochki zreniya (Izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy) [The Science of Social Consciousness: Knowledge from a Historical Point of View (Selected Psychological Works)]. Moscow, Moskovskii sotsial’no-psikhologicheskii institut, 1999.

4. Khaidegger M. Nauka i osmyslenie: Bytie i vremya [Science and Understanding: Being and Time]. Moscow, Respublika, 1993.

5. Gumilev L.N. Drevnyaya Rusi Velikaya step’ [Ancient Russia and the Great Steppe]. Moscow, Astrel’, 2012.

6. Khaidegger M. Vopros o tekhnike: Bytie i vremya [The Question of Technology: Being and Time]. M.: Respublika, 1993.

7. Gumilev L.N. Ot Rusi do Rossii [From Rus to Russia]. Moscow, Airis-Press, 2001.

8. Stalin I.V. Ekonomicheskie problemy sotsializma v SSSR [Economic problems of socialism in the USSR]. Moscow, Gospolitizdat, 1952.

9. Pyzhikov A.V. Grani russkogo raskola [Facets of the Russian Split]. Moscow, Drevlekhranilishche, 2013.

10. Fromm E. Imetili byt’ [To Have or to Be]. Moscow, AST, 2016.