Author page: Andrey Bakhur

Moscow — Third Rome (and the Fourth do not Happen)


The talk of “vision of the future” that has been going on in recent years actually ignores the fact that in our history this problem has been solved. Having proclaimed: “Moscow is the Third Rome,” Elder Philotheus did not simply formulate an ideologeme, due to the necessity of that time. He expressed the idea of our statehood, which developed from the very beginning of its formation and determined the movement of our country.



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2. Bogdanov A.A. Tektologiya [Tectology]. Moscow, Finansy, 2003.

3. Bogdanov A.A. Nauka ob obshchestvennom soznanii: Poznanie s istoricheskoi tochki zreniya (Izbrannye psikhologicheskie trudy) [The Science of Social Consciousness: Knowledge from a Historical Point of View (Selected Psychological Works)]. Moscow, Moskovskii sotsial’no-psikhologicheskii institut, 1999.

4. Khaidegger M. Nauka i osmyslenie: Bytie i vremya [Science and Understanding: Being and Time]. Moscow, Respublika, 1993.

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7. Gumilev L.N. Ot Rusi do Rossii [From Rus to Russia]. Moscow, Airis-Press, 2001.

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Stories of Socialism and Communism in pre-Marx Times


Socialism and communism are presented today as unviable social formations. The article analyzes the real experience of successful social construction — “Paraguayan socialism” (XVII — the middle of the XIX century) and the economy of the Old Believers in Russia (from the XVII century to the mid-40s of the XIX century) — which is of great importance for the whole world and for modern Russia


1. Sotsializm kak yavlenie mirovoi istorii [Socialism as a Phenomenon of World History]. Sait I.R. Shafarevichaб available at:

2. Paragvaiskii eksperiment. Chast’ pervaya [Paraguayan Experiment. Part One]. VikiChtenie, available at:

3. Iezuitskie reduktsii [Jesuit Reductions]. Vikipediya, available at:

4. Zueva M.V. “Gosudarstvo” iezuitov v Paragvae [“State” of the Jesuits in Paraguay]. Mir indeitsev, available at:

5. Pyzhikov A.V. Grani russkogo raskola [Facets of the Russian split]. Moscow, Drevlekhranilishche, 2013.

6. Trudovaya etika staroobryadchestva i modernizatsiya Rossii v XIX i XX vekakh [The Work Ethic of the Old Believers and the Modernization of Russia in the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Russkii mir, available at:

7. Katasonov V.Yu. Ekonomika Stalina [Stalin’s Economy]. Moscow, Institut russkoi tsivilizatsii, 2016.

The Russian Way of Smart Housekeeping

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.92-99

Historically, a mode of production has developed in Russia that differs significantly from that considered in political economy as a model. At first, it clearly manifested itself in the economic activities of the Old Believers. On a national scale, he played a leading role in the period 1930–1955, after which its foundations were eroded. The article discusses its properties and potential, the possibility of implementation in modern conditions