The "Economic Strategies" journal

2020 #5. 2020. Insistence of Elites

Digital Economy: Problems and Solutions

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.51-57

The article examines the role and importance of international information standards in the digital economy. The importance of standards in building a single digital space as a key element of the digital economy is shown. Particular attention is paid to international standards of integration on the level of ontology, semantics and languages of interaction of information systems. The structure of the standards of the European initiative in the digital economy — “Industry 4.0”, as well as the development of the digital economy in the directions: Digital Corporation and Digital Industry. The possible directions of the development and application of information standards within the digital economy are defined

How to Overcome Stagnation and New Crisis, Providing Socio-Economic Growth

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.34-45

In April 2020, Russia entered a structural social and financial-economic crisis caused by the coronavirus pandemic and catastrophic decline of oil and gas exports. Assessing the current socio-economic situation in the country, the author concludes that, in contrast to the crisis of 2009, which was mainly financial and economic in nature, the 2020 crisis for the most part has got a social character, when indicators of the people’s well-being are declining particularly. According to the author, only return to planning would ensure implementation of an integrated financial plan, an investment program for the whole country, directive indicators of enterprises and organizations controlled by the state, as well as would impact public-private partnership

Priority Directions of Development of Science, Technologies and Technics in Interests of Defence and State Security

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.24-33

The paper presents the results of determining the priority directions of development of science, technologies and technics in interests of defence and state security, based on open sources of information, methods and tools of forecasting of development of science, equipment and technologies used in the formation of promising scientific and technological directions of development of military-industrial complex (defense industry). The authors analyze documents that determine the priorities of scientific and technological development of the Russian Federation, show the criteria for selecting a list of strategic priority areas for the development of science, technology and technology, and consider the methodology for substantiating promising areas of scientific and technological development of the defense industry. The paper shows that scientific and technical forecasting is an integral part of the formation of policy in the field of defense and security of the state. They are formed in close connection with critical technologies approved by the President of the Russian Federation. The authors reveal in detail the key trends in the development of science, technology and engineering that ensure the formation of the scientific and technological Foundation for the creation of promising samples of VVST

National Security of Russia

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.6-23

The article is continuing the research “Modelling and Assessment of Russia’s National Power”, dedicated to calculating the index of national power, which is currently the most informative and popular indicator in the world that integrally characterizes the aggregate potential of a particular country and allows at the same time to compare the level of its power and socio-economic development with the other countries’ level. The research results were published in the “Economic Strategies” magazine No. 2 for 2020. [1].

If the national power of the state, in fact, determines its potential capabilities and mainly gross indicators are used for the

calculation, then the national security indicators are calculated on the basis of normalized values (as a rule, per capita) and witness the development level of one or another component of the country’s socio-ecologic and economic system, as well as efficiency of using the existing potential. It should be reminded that in terms of the National Integral Strength Index, which includes many components, Russia ranks fourth in the world, slightly behind India. In this article, using the methods of multivariate statistical analysis, we’ll calculate the national security indicators of the UN member states, also defining the position of Russia, but in addition, we’ll also estimate the threshold values for all the factors of national security considered in the work. In the last part of the paper, we’ll give a medium-term forecast of national security

Influence of Monetary Policy on Technological Development of the Economy in a Long-Term Aspect

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.136-143

Monetary policy currently pursued by the Central Bank of the Russian Federation is a reflection of external market conditions. Regulatory approaches should, in particular, help reduce the dependence of monetary policy on external factors — such as oil prices, foreign loans, access to foreign markets, etc. This is not about completely isolating the monetary sphere of the Russian Federation from parameters and the external environment. It is required to refuse close, automatic communication with the given parameters. It is necessary to increase the stability of the monetary system of the Russian Federation and the economy as a whole in relation to external shocks. This can be done through more active use of a wide range of tools available to the regulator. These include monetary and regulatory mechanisms (interest rates, reserve requirements, foreign exchange positions, etc.), gold reserves, verbal interventions, etc., which can have a stimulating effect on economic growth. The high volatility of the ruble now observed makes it extremely difficult for enterprises to plan and forecast, thereby making it impossible for the normal course of investment processes and expanded reproduction. In order to use monetary mechanisms to stimulate economic growth and eliminate the negative effects of current monetary policy (in particular, implemented since autumn 2014), a departure from inflation targeting and free floating of the ruble exchange rate is necessary. At the same time, it is obviously necessary to abandon many components or closely related elements (for example, “monetary contraction”). In addition, steps will be needed to stabilize the foreign exchange market, which would have positive effects (falling volatility, lower inflation, etc.). Under current conditions, with limited access to external financial resources, it is important to use mechanisms  for generating financial flows based on internal sources. In other words, the monetary base should be formed due to internal factors, and not depend on the dynamics of energy prices. In previous years, the main emphasis in the Russian economy was placed on the external sphere as a source of growth financing. Restricting access to external cheap financial resources (due to low oil prices, sanctions, etc.), as well as continuing geopolitical tensions with regard to Russia, reduce the possibilities for implementing longterm investment projects in the economy. This increases the relevance of national mechanisms and sources of formation of the resource base (including long) necessary to refinance previously taken loans, as well as to implement structural changes in the Russian economy.

EAEU and Global Value Chains

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.128-135

The article describes position of the EAEU countries in the international division of labour, compares them with other geographic regions. The author reveals the pros and cons of deeper integration into global value chains, and also suggests various policy options with regard to participation therein. The paper also describes the EAEU regional features, on the basis of which advantages and disadvantages of the region in relation to external economic agents are specified. Special focus is made on the protectionist trend, which has both internal and external (global) dimensions and hinders implementation of effective coordinated macroeconomic policy of the EAEU countries for achieving higher redistributions in global production chains.

Reproductive Behaviour of Female Entrepreneurs in Russia

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.90-97

Research in the field of fertility often focuses on peculiarities of reproductive behaviour of various groups of population different

in socio-economic status, material and moral needs and reproductive attitudes. Comprehension of these features is important when shaping a pro-birth policy, since different groups of the population may respond differently to the proposed measures. In the article women entrepreneurs are presented as one of the groups of the Russian population with specific reproductive behaviour. The features of demographic profile and reproductive behaviour are analyzed on the basis of results of the All-Russian population census of 2002 and 2010 and a sample survey of the population reproductive plans of 2017

Supplementary Education Within Transition Strategy Towards Post-Industrial Development Stage

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.82-89

The lead role in the post-industrial economy’s establishment of the social layer of highly qualified specialists’ formation determines the strategic importance of education. The article presents an analysis of the statistical indicators distribution characterizing the correlation of changes in the structure of GDP and economics of education. The analysis showed the relevance of supplementing basic education systems at all levels with informal flexible training courses. These courses allow adapting the acquired competencies to dynamic changes in the nature of labor and the structure of employment. The prospects of attracting potential of public-state partnership for the organization of additional adaptive training are considered. In such a case, basic education is combined with capabilities of educational public organizations that are not bound by the inertia of standards and agreeing on topics and methods