Changing Business Models in the Context of Digital Transformation of the Global Economy

DOI: 10.33917/es-1.175.2021.64-69

Technological advances have resulted in rapid decrease of the data processing unit cost, which has stimulated a significant increase in the use of digital information that can be manipulated at a high speed and with low marginal costs. This change facilitated the use and integration of digital products and transactions, which led to continuous structural transformation of the economy. Digital technologies are increasingly blurring the boundaries between human life and information technologies, which requires a systemic approach to innovative business models, but so far general concept and unified methodology for systemic development of digital business models are missing. The present article summarizes the main approaches to analyzing changes in business models under the influence of digital transformation. The latter has led both to modification of global value chains and to the development of a new type of global digital platforms operating based on a new system of competitive advantages

China as a Neural-Information Megamatrix: Digital Technologies for Structuring Cognitive Ensembles of Order

DOI: 10.33917/es-1.175.2021.50-61

In China, the strategy for the national information infrastructure development is implementing a large-scale and unparalleled project for developing artificial intelligence and its application to solving critical problems. Threats and risks of the current stage left no choice to China. The best Soviet and Russian developments of centralized planning and modeling are actively used, advanced American experience in applying neuroinformation technologies to influence society is being adopted. In fact, a neuroinformational mega-matrix is being formed, which will allow the Chinese authorities to keep the seething mass of people and organizations within a controlled circuit. Configuring cognitive communications in the socio-technical system “person — infocommunication environment — the state” allows to develop a social credit model for forming behavior vectors in large groups of the population with culling disloyal in behaviour (implemented now) and disloyal in thinking (soon to be implemented) human units of the China-community

Institutional Barriers to the Innovations Introduction in Implementing the “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation” Program

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.36-43

The institutional environment study makes it possible in an era of high uncertainty to identify patterns that impede changes, implementation of which currently determines not only performance indicators, but is also critical for survival. Based on analysis of the current state of the digital economy development in the Russian Federation, taking into account experience of the first half of 2020, as well as approaches to organization and performance indicators of the “Digital Economy of the Russian Federation” national program, assumptions are made regarding the main components of the institutional environment for digital transformation. Institutional barriers, that impede economic growth as a result of increased informatization of processes, were compared. The main reason for the formation of institutional barriers is considered to be the low speed of response, the delay in transformation of the institutional environment in relation to establishment that ensures the maximum positive effect of applying digital technologies

Social Networks, Their Basic Factors, as Well as Their Role in Society and the State in the Context of Digital Transformation

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.26-35

Society is historically associated with the state, which plays the role of an institution of power and government. The main task of the state is life support, survival, development of society and the sovereignty of the country. The main mechanism that the state uses to implement these functions is natural social networks. They permeate every cell of society, all elements of the country and its territory. However, they can have a control center, or act on the principle of self-organization (network centrism). The web is a universal natural technology with a category status in science. The work describes five basic factors of any social network, in particular the state, as well as what distinguishes the social network from other organizational models of society. Social networks of the state rely on communication, transport and other networks of the country, being a mechanism for the implementation of a single strategy and plan. However, the emergence of other strong network centers of competition for state power inevitably leads to problems — social conflicts and even catastrophes in society due to the destruction of existing social institutions. The paper identifies the main pitfalls using alternative social networks that destroy the foundations of the state and other social institutions, which leads to the loss of sovereignty, and even to the complete collapse of the country.

Strategy of a Legal Framework Formation in the Field of Determining Liability for the Harm Caused by Technologies with the Use of Artificial Intelligence Elements

DOI: 10.33917/es-7.173.2020.118-124

In the modern world, introduction of technologies with the elements of artificial intelligence into all spheres of life is developing rapidly, significantly ahead of the development of legislation. In this regard, the problem of determining liability for the harm caused by the use of such technologies arises. The problem can be solved by creating a comprehensive strategy for the development of the legal field in this area and bringing the current legislation to the level of information-oriented Society 5.0, the concept of which assumes technical breakthrough in the field of cyber technologies. The aim of this research is to analyze current situation in the field of legal regulation of liability for the harm caused by technologies with the elements of artificial intelligence and to determine the strategy for the formation of legal framework in this field. In the first part of the article the analysis of the current legal situation on the basis of scientific developments in this area is carried out, as well as the solutions proposed by the strategy for the development of artificial intelligence technologies as the basis for the formation of the legal framework are shown. The second part of the article is devoted to the strategy of a legal framework formation in the field of determining responsibility for the use of technologies with the elements of artificial intelligence. In conclusion it is said that the strategy under consideration can be realized by developing a set of measures aimed at implementing the provisions that define responsibility for the use of technologies with elements of artificial intelligence into current legislation.

The Problem of Unemployment in the Digital Economy

DOI: 10.33917/es-7.173.2020.110-117

The article analyzes a special type of unemployment, the occurrence of which is associated with the development of the digital economy. Shown are the main problems that digital can bring to social life and the fate of an individual worker. Chief among these problems is that with the further digital transformation of the economy, more and more jobs may be threatened with extinction, and the disappearance of old jobs this time will not be accompanied by the emergence of new ones. A situation may arise when workers released due to digitalization will become not only unemployed, but also generally inoperable. A global question arises — what to do with those who do not work, and how to support them? It also examines the related measures of population regulation and global mechanisms for managing demographic processes.

Neuromanagement: Convergent Integration of the Human Brain and Artificial Intelligence

DOI: 10.33917/es-6.172.2020.46-57

World achievements in the field of neuroscience have provided previously inaccessible opportunities for creating fundamentally new control systems based on neurointerfaces (brain — computer — brain). Hybridization of environments — gradual blurring of the boundaries between physical, cognitive and digital realities — is taking place. Descriptions of social and cognitive practices of real people are transformed into forming an artificial electronic subject, which becomes more real, replacing a biological object in society (a person is how he is represented in the electronic information environment). At the same time, development of the neurointerface perspectively leads to conversion of nervous tissue and changes biological substrate of the human brain and body in the vector of convergent collaboration of living and artificial nervous systems. Our American competing partners (the US Department of Defence represented by DARPA) carry out multidisciplinary comprehensive research in this area, leading in real results, the US leadership is increasing government funding. A qualitative change in technologies for managing people, society and the state is taking place. Russia’s objective in these conditions is to form its own segment of Neuronet, relying on domestic neurotechnologies, by analogy with the policy of import substitution in Russian nuclear energy.

Classification of Artificial Intelligence Systems

DOI: 10.33917/es-6.172.2020.58-67

The article considers the classification of Artificial Intelligence (AI) systems. The role of AI has increased significantly recently in all areas of life. The use of AI in public administration, in production, in medicine, in the military, in the social sphere, etc., raised a number of questions related to the definition of AI and classification of AI systems. Classification of AI is necessary to understand the role of AI in the digital economy. Classification becomes important in the context of intensive development of international standards for AI systems and knowledge-based systems (expert, neural, multi-agent, cyber-physical systems and systems based on the industrial Internet)

Cellular Paradigm of Network Organization: Implications for Present-Day Society

DOI: 10.33917/es-6.172.2020.68-77

Microorganisms and cultivated cells from human or animal tissues form complex network structures (colonies, biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) that are characterized by efficient communication and behavior coordination in the absence of a central pacemaker. The decentralized (flat) network organization of such structures is due to the functioning of (a) information-transmitting intercellular contacts, (b) a signal field created by distant communication systems, including the quorum-sensing system; and (c) a biopolymer matrix that cements the cells of the whole network structure. Microbial network structures exist in the human organism, especially in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. The cellular networks engage in complex interaction with the host organism. The organism represents a complex combination of hierarchical structures and decentralized networks and includes the brain, the peripheral nervous system, the immune system, and the endocrine system.

The interaction between the microbiota and the host may produce both positive and negative effects on the host’s physical and mental health, because decentralized networks are known to possess not only useful but also potentially harmful properties. Communication between microbial cells and the host organism involves neurochemicals, i.e., chemical compounds, whose functions include impulse transmission between nervous cells. In the final section, the cellular paradigm of network organization is envisaged as the conceptual basis of organizational technology aimed at creating efficient non-hierarchical creative teams that are cemented by common values and goals (the network matrix).

Digital Economy: Problems and Solutions

DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.51-57

The article examines the role and importance of international information standards in the digital economy. The importance of standards in building a single digital space as a key element of the digital economy is shown. Particular attention is paid to international standards of integration on the level of ontology, semantics and languages of interaction of information systems. The structure of the standards of the European initiative in the digital economy — “Industry 4.0”, as well as the development of the digital economy in the directions: Digital Corporation and Digital Industry. The possible directions of the development and application of information standards within the digital economy are defined