Digital Technologies Beyond Hype: The Global Landscape

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.186.2022.104-110

The paper discusses three key issues that play a special role in the development of strategies and policies for digital technologies: 1) particularities of digital technologies that greatly influence the principles and methodological approaches to the development of strategic documents, 2) drivers, main players and trends of global market, 3) trends in the accumulation of a technological knowledge base to provide competitive advantages to national companies in the short and medium term.

References:

1. Gaponenko N.V., Glenn J.C. Technology Industry 4.0: Problems of Labor, Employment and Unemployment. Studies on Russian Economic Development, 2020, vol. 31, no 3, pp. 271–276.

2. Gaponenko N.V. Teoreticheskie i metodologicheskie osnovy issledovaniya innovatsionnykh sistem i formirovaniya tekhnologicheskikh prioritetov ikh razvitiya v ekonomike, osnovannoi na znaniyakh [Theoretical and Methodological Foundations for Studying Innovative Systems and Forming Technological Priorities of their Development in the Knowledge-Based Economy]. Moscow, IPRAN RAN, 2020, 151 p.

3. Gaponenko N.V. Zakonomernosti i osobennosti evolyutsii sektoral’nykh innovatsionnykh sistem v ramkakh dolgosrochnogo tsikla [Regularities and Evolution Features of Sectoral Innovation Systems within the Long-Term Cycle]. Systems and Management, 2020, no 1, pp. 44–67.

4. Gaponenko N.V. Sektoral’nye innovatsionnye sistemy v ekonomike, osnovannoi na znaniyakh [Sectoral Innovation Systems in the Knowledge-Based Economy]. Moscow, IPRAN RAN, 2021, 264 p.

5. Going Digital: Shaping Policies, Improving Lives. Paris, OECD Publishing, 2019.

6. IT Industry Outlook 2021. CompTIA, 2020.

7. Gaponenko N.V. Global’nye vyzovy v formirovanii politsentrichnogo mirovogo poryadka: traektorii retro i traektorii budushchego [Global Challenges in Formation of a Polycentric World Order: Retro Trajectories and Trajectories of the Future]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2020, vol. 22, no 1(167), pp. 28–35, DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.167.2020.28-35/

8. Positive 5G Outlook Post COVID-19: What Does It Mean for Avid Gamers? Forest Interactive, 2020.

Concept of Developing the SASC System: Suggestions

DOI: https://doi.org/ 10.33917/es-6.186.2022.96-103

The article proposes a variant of creating, basis of the existing duty services, security units and dispatch centers of the physical body of a large mining and metallurgical company the System of situational-analytical security centers (SASC system) as a system of information, information-analytical and information-technological support of managerial activities of the heads of corporate security unit, as well as heads of other departments of a company for collecting, accumulating, analyzing diverse information on the evolving situation in the field of security, its comprehensive presentation. Such a system for supporting management activities in the field of integrated security should include all lines of work that fall within the competence of the Department of Corporate Protection of the Company.

On the Problem of Applying Knowledge in Risk Management Systems

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.52-59

The article dwells on the concept of building intelligent, knowledge-based decision support systems. A formalized risk management system is proposed. Based on the system, the author puts forward a solution to a particular problem from the banking sector in implementing projects related to distressed assets. Description and requirements to the tool for development, implementation and use of expert systems are presented.

References:

 

1. Shikaeva V.V. Pravovoi navigator dlya biznesa [Legal Navigator for Business]. Izdatel’skie resheniya, 2020, 162 p.

2. Ueno X., Isidzuka M. Predstavlenie i ispol’zovanie znanii [Representation and Use of Knowledge]. Moscow, Mir, 1989, 220 p.

3. Leong-Khong B., Plagman B. Sistemy slovarei-spravochnikov dannykh: Administrirovanie, realizatsiya, ispol’zovanie [Systems of Data Dictionary-Reference Books: Administration, Implementation, Use]. Moscow, Finansy i statistika, 1986, 311 p.

4. Forsait R. Ekspertnye sistemy. Printsipy raboty i primery [Expert Systems. Operating Principles and Examples]. Moscow, Radio i svyaz’, 1987, 224 p.

5. Rutkovskaya D., Pilin’skii M., Rutkovskii L. Neironnye seti, geneticheskie algoritmy i nechetkie sistemy [Neural Networks, Genetic Algorithms and Fuzzy Systems]. Moscow, Goryachaya liniya — Telekom, 2013, 384 p.

6. Terano T., Asai K., Sugeno M. Prikladnye nechetkie sistemy [Applied Fuzzy Systems]. Moscow, Mir, 1993, 368 p.

7. Zade L. Ponyatie lingvisticheskoi peremennoi i ego primenenie k prinyatiyu priblizhennykh reshenii [Concept of a Linguistic Variable and Its Application to Approximate Decision Making]. Moscow, Mir, 1976, 167 p.

Neurocommunity — the Future of Humanity?

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.185.2022.42-51

Neurodigital technologies qualitatively and quantitatively expand the possibilities of human behavior control, creating conditions for ensuring a targeted cognitive-psychological state of both an individual and groups within a neurocommunity. One of the key vectors for applying such new management opportunities is imprinting on a person of a positive perception of the surrounding reality, which contributes to maintaining socio-political stability in the state and society and also increases the efficiency of individual employees and their teams. Identification of psychosemantic qualities of a person based on analysis of his interests and preferences allows to form and imprint a cognitive-reflexive model of identification and interpretation of what is happening, adapted to a particular person, which serves as a source of actions for person and groups of his like-minded people and provides stability of the society, which is gradually acquiring the features of a neurocommunity.

References:

 

1. Vannevar Bush. As We May Think. The Atlantic, available at: https://www.theatlantic.com/magazine/archive/1945/07/as-we-may-think/303881/?single_page=true.

2. Ageev A.I. Golovokruzhenie intellekta [Intelligence Dizziness]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2019, no 5 (163), p. 5, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.163.2019.5.

3. Denisov A.A., Sablin V.A. Rezul’taty aprobatsii sistemy upravleniya v postindustrial’nykh tekhnologicheskikh sredakh [Results of the Control System Approbation in Post-industrial Technological Environments]. Mezhdunarodnyi nauchno-issledovatel’skii zhurnal “Evraziiskii soyuz uchenykh”, 2020, no 10 (79), pp. 16–21. (Seriya: Tekhnicheskie nauki.)

4. Lepskii V.E. Problema sborki sub”ektov v informatsionnykh voinakh [Problem of the Subjects Assembly in Information Wars]. Informatsionnye voiny, 2019, no 4 (52), pp. 2–8.

5. Loginov E.L. Ispol’zovanie tekhnologii BIG DATA dlya protivodeistviya massovym besporyadkam v usloviyakh nedostatka informatsii i neopredelennosti razvitiya situatsii [Using BIG DATA Technologies to Counter Riots in the Face of Lack of Information and Uncertainty of the Situation Development]. Iskusstvennyi intellekt (bol’shie dannye) na sluzhbe politsii: Sb. statei mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii [Artificial Intelligence (Big Data) in the Police Service: Collection of Articles of the International Scientific-practical Conference]. Moscow, Akademiya upravleniya MVD Rossii, 2020, pp. 145–150.

6. Ageev A.I., Loginov E.L., Shkuta A.A. Kitai kak neiroinformatsionnaya megamatritsa: tsifrovye tekhnologii strukturirovaniya kognitivnykh ansamblei poryadka [China as a Neural-Information Megamatrix: Digital Technologies for Structuring Cognitive Ensembles of Order]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 1 (175), pp. 50–61, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.175.2021.50-61.

7. Raikov A.N. Komp’yuternaya podderzhka refleksivnykh protsessov v upravlenii [Computer Support for Reflexive Processes in Management]. Sb. “Psikhologiya i ee prilozheniya” [Psychology and Its Applications]. Ezhegodnik Rossiiskogo psikhologicheskogo obshchestva, 2002, no 1, p. 52.

Epic Fail of BigTech Digital Transformation. Where is the Key to Level Up? [Epic Fail of Digital Transformation of Transnational Corporations. Where is the Key to a Level up Management?]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.46-55

World trend of the XXI century — Industry 4.0 and digital platforms. In 2014, General Electric (GE) partnered with Big Tech giants — AT&T, Cisco, IBM and Intel — to take control of the global manufacturing industry created the Industrial Internet Contributors Association (Industry IoT Consortium IIC). By 2021, the IIC included Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Accenture, Huawei, Bosch, EMC, SAP, Siemens, SAS and others. GE together with BigTech created the industrial cloud platform Predix, declaring it to be practically an “operating system” for factories, analogous to Android or iOS in the world of machines, the language of the industrial Internet.

However, in 2020 GE and Predix suffered a devastating fiasco.

The article provides an analysis of the root causes and problems, and formulates the requirements for digital platforms of industrial software. The author describes alternative solutions and new principles for implementing digital transformation of Industry 4.0 based on the closing technologies of digital genesis, graph-centric platforms, tools, models and systems of collective conscious scientifically based balanced management (industrial, corporate, social, state). Closing technologies offered by Russia have got an enormous social and political resource.

Antimonopoly Regulation: Priorities in Changing World

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es.2.182.2022.32-38

The article focuses on changes in global markets induced by digitalization of economy that caused new challenges to antimonopoly regulation. In this context, the author considers digital platforms and use of algorithmic pricing by economic entities. The author proposes to delineate between different types of platforms and their classification in platforms — exchanges or trade spots and multisided markets and to assess the impact of both types on competition. The article also considers the use of digital algorithms by entities as a factor of concerted conduct and implicit collusion among the market participants. In this context, the author attempts to assess the influence of humans and algorithms on sustainability of implicit collusion.

Both problems are considered in the context of global scale of entities. It limits possibilities of law enforcement against their monopolistic conduct by national competition authorities, as well as national sovereignty when faced with global corporations. In conclusion, the author stresses the necessity of search of new means of countering monopolization in digital markets

Источники:

1. ICN 2021, available at: https://icn2021budapest.hu/site/#

2. Ageev A.I. Kartina mira [Picture of the World]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2019, no 4, p. 5, available at: https://www.inesnet.ru/wp-content/mag_archive/2019_04/ES2019-04-Slovo.pdf.

3. Howard A. Shelansky. Information, Innovation and Competition Policy for Internet. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 2013, N 161, pp. 1699–1701.

4. Competition Policy. European Commission. Case AT.39740 Google Search (Shopping), available at: https://ec.europa.eu/competition/elojade/isef/case_details.cfm?proc_code=1_39740.

5. Monopolies Commission: Digital change requires legal adjustments regarding price algorithms, the media sector and the supply of medicines. Monopolkommission, available at: https://perma.cc/QW5S-UB8Z.

6. Transcript of FTC Hearings Session No. 7: Competition and Consumer Protection in the 21st Century — Day 2. U.S. FED. TRADE COMM’N 19-84 (Nov. 14, 2018), available at: https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/public_events/1418693/ftc_hearings_session_7_transcript_day_2_11-14-18_0.pdf.

7. Kai-uwe K hn & Steve Tadelis, Algorithm Collusion. CRESSE, 2017, available at:  http://www.cresse.info/uploadfiles/2017_sps5_pr2.pdf.

Russia in the Global World of Artificial Intelligence: Assessment by World Rankings

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.20-31

Artificial intelligence systems (AI) are rapidly becoming a competitive tool, an important factor in improving the efficiency of socioeconomic reproduction, and even an attribute of the development of human civilization, the core of global and national development projects. Comparative assessments of the degree of development of AIS have also become a tool for influencing the economic strategies of states and companies and supporting their implementation. Determining a country’s place in the global “table of ranks” makes it possible not only to clarify its real status in global competition in AIS but also to identify unaccounted for elements to increase the effectiveness of government initiatives in the field of AIS development

Источники:

1. Glava VEF zayavil, chto kovid sleduet rassmatrivat’ kak dolgosrochnyi vyzov dlya chelovechestva [The Head of the WEF Said That Covid Should be Seen as a Long-Term Challenge for Humanity]. TASS, available at: https://tass.ru/obschestvo/13273357.

2. Krichevskii G.E. NBIKS-tekhnologii dlya Mira i Voiny [NBICS Technologies for Peace and War]. Saarbryukken, Germaniya, Lambert, 2017, 634 p.

3. Ovchinnikov V.V. Doroga v mir iskusstvennogo intellekta [Road to the World of Artificial Intelligence]. Moscow, Institut ekonomicheskikh strategii, RUBIN, 2017, 536 p. (Ceriya: Strategicheskaya analitika)

4. Gonka za tsifrovym prizrakom [Chasing the Digital Ghost]. Kommersant, 2019, June, 24, available at: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/4003879.

5. Kalyaev I.A. Iskusstvennyi intellekt: kamo gryadeshi? [Artificial Intelligence: Whither Goest Thou?]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2019, no 5, pp. 6–15, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.163.2019.6-15.

6. Markoff J. A learning advance in artificial intelligence rivals human abilities. The New York Times, 2015, available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/11/science/an-advance-in-artificial-intelligence-rivals-human-vision-abilities.html.

7. Ageev A.I., Loginov E.L., Shkuta A.A. Kitai kak neiroinformatsionnaya megamatritsa: tsifrovye tekhnologii strukturirovaniya kognitivnykh ansamblei poryadka [China as a Neural-Information Megamatrix: Digital Technologies for Structuring Cognitive Ensembles of Order]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 1, pp. 50–61, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.175.2021.50-61.

8. European approach to artificial intelligence. European Commission, available at: https://digital-strategy.ec.europa.eu/en/policies/european-approach-artificialintelligence.

9. Proposal for a Regulation of the European parliament and of the Council laying down harmonised rules on artificial intelligence (artificial intelligence act) and amending certain union legislative acts. EUR-lex, available at: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1623335154975&uri=CELEX%3A52021PC0206.

10. Artificial Intelligence: A European Perspective. European Commission. URL: https://publications.jrc.ec.europa.eu/repository/handle/JRC113826.

The Digital Twin (Artificial Society) of the Socio-Economic System of Russia is a Platform for Experiments in the Field of Managing Demographic Processes

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.6-19

One of the most promising tools for monitoring and predicting social processes are agent-based models, which are widely used abroad. Their advantage lies in the consideration of the system under study at the level of its individual individuals, which increases the realism of these computer-based assessment methods. In Russia, this direction is also developing, although not so actively. The article discusses the dynamics of the population of Russia, as well as the factors of increasing the birth rate, successful examples of the practical implementation of agent models for studying social processes, a brief description of the model we developed, which includes 146 million agents, is given. With the help of this tool, a forecast of the population of Russia and an assessment of the impact on this indicator of some measures aimed at improving the demographic situation were obtained.

Источники:

1. Makarov V.L., Bakhtizin A.R., Il’in N.I. Modelirovanie i otsenka natsional’noi sily Rossii [Modeling and Assessing the National Strength of Russia]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2020, no 2, pp. 6–19, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.168.2020.6-19.

2. Makarov V.L., Bakhtizin A.R., Il’in N.I., Sushko E.D. Natsional’naya bezopasnost’ Rossii [National Security of Russia]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2020, no 5, pp. 6–23, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.171.2020.6-23.

3. Andreev E.M., Darskii L.E., Khar’kova T.L. Naselenie Sovetskogo Soyuza: 1922–1991 [Population of the Soviet Union: 1922–1991]. Moscow, Nauka, 1993, 143 p.

4. Federal’naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki [Federal State Statistics Service], available at: https://rosstat.gov.ru.

5. Zdravookhranenie [Healthcare]. Federal’naya sluzhba gosudarstvennoi statistiki, available at:  https://rosstat.gov.ru/folder/13721.

6. Sobotka T., Matysiak A., Brzozowska Z. Policy responses to low fertility: How effective are they? Working Paper, May, 2019, N 1, available at: https://www.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/Policy_responses_low_fertility_UNFPA_WP_Final_corrections_7Feb2020_CLEAN.pdf.

7. The World Bank, available at: https://data.worldbank.org.

8. Aganbegyan A.G. O katastroficheskom uvelichenii smertnosti i merakh po sberezheniyu naroda v Rossii [On Catastrophic Increase in Mortality and Measures to Save the People in Russia]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, no 4, pp. 6–13, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.178.2021.6-13.

9. Country Comparisons — Death Rate. The World Factbook, available at: https://www.cia.gov/the-world-factbook/field/death-rate/country-comparison.

10. Goldstein J.R., Koulovatianos C., Li J., Schr der C. Evaluating how child allowances and daycare subsidies affect fertility. Goethe University Frankfurt am Main, available at: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:hebis:30:3-430067.

11. Kalwij A. The impact of family policy expenditure on fertility in western Europe. Demography, 2010, N 47(2), pp. 503–519, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.1353/dem.0.0104.

Digital Technologies of Public Audit

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.34-39

The article dwells on the problems of organizing state audit based on digital technologies. The concept of digital register and digital platforms is proposed, the author also describes system and software solutions that allow to provide continuous audit and, on its basis, adaptive management of public resources based on audit data in the economic-mathematical balance model that characterizes intersectoral production relationships in the country’s economy.

Источники:

1. Iskusstvennyi intellekt v audite: snimaem nalet mistiki [Artificial Intelligence in Audit: Removing the Mystique]. GAAP.RU, available at: https://gaap.ru/articles/Iskusstvennyy_intellekt_v_audite_snimaem_nalet_mistiki/

2. Blokchein v mire audita. Udastsya li proektu Auditchain proizvesti revolyutsiyu na rynke finansovoi otchetnosti i audita? [Blockchain in the World of Audit. Will the Auditchain Project Succeed in Revolutionizing the Financial Reporting and Audit Market?]. ClickChain, available at: https://clickchain.ru/2018/07/31/blokchejn-v-mire-audita/

3. Schetnaya palata Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: http://audit.gov.ru/about/

4. Schetnaya palata pereidet na tsifrovoi audit v techenie trekh let [Accounts Chamber will Switch to Digital Audit Within Three Years]. TASS, 2018, August, 2, available at: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/5423538.

5. Tsifrovoi audit — budushchee Schetnoi palaty [Digital Audit is the Future of the Accounts Chamber]. Schetnaya palata RF, 2019, October, 11, available at: http://audit.gov.ru/press_center/news/38884.

6. Tsifrovye tekhnologii v bukhgalterskoi i auditorskoi deyatel’nosti [Digital Technologies in Accounting and Auditing]. BizEcucate, available at: https://bizeducate.com/11/2018/tsifrovye-tehnologii-v-buhgalterskoj-i-auditorskoj-deyatelnosti/

Development of the Strategic Management System in the Context of Digitalization

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.20-33

The introduction of digital technologies has a significant impact on the development of the entire public administration system and its most important element — the strategic planning system. Modern digital intelligent technologies and the work of government bodies based on the advanced achievements of management science and the unity of methodological approaches make it possible to raise the strategic planning system to a qualitatively new level. The key to success is the coordinated development of both the public administration system itself and the nationwide information and control systems. The authors, based on the analysis of the content of strategic management activities and the information used for this activity, formulated general approaches to the choice of information technologies to ensure the implementation of the stages of strategic  management.

Источники:

1. Putin V.V. Zasedanie Soveta Bezopasnosti 27 sentyabrya 2021 g. [Meeting of the Security Council on September 27, 2021. Ofitsial’nyi sait Prezidenta RF, available at: http://kremlin.ru/events/president/news/66777.

2. Ukaz Prezidenta RF ot 8 noyabrya 2021 g. N 633 “Ob utverzhdenii Osnov gosudarstvennoi politiki v sfere strategicheskogo planirovanii v Rossiiskoi Federatsii” [Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of November 8, 2011 No. 633 “On Approval of the Fundamentals of State Policy in the Sphere of Strategic Planning in the Russian Federation”]. Garant, available at: https://www.garant.ru/products/ipo/prime/doc/402915816/

3. Kudryashova E.V. Informatsionnye tekhnologii dlya strategicheskogo planirovaniya v Rossii: etapy razvitiya i perspektivy [Information Technology for Strategic Planning in Russia: Development Stages and Prospects]. Gosudarstvennaya vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2021, no 2, pp. 36–40.

4. Andreeva Z.K., Baryshnikov P.Yu., Zhurenkov D.A., et al. Strategicheskoe tselepolaganie v situatsionnykh tsentrakh razvitiya [Strategic Goal-setting in Situational Development Centers]. Pod red. V.E. Lepskogo, A.N. Raikova. Moscow, Kogito-Tsentr, 2018, 320 p.

5. Kupryashin G.L., Shramm A.E. O printsipakh datatsentrizma, setetsentrizma i komandnotsentrizma v kontekste informatizatsii gosudarstvennogo upravleniya [On Principles of Data, Network, and Chain-Of-Command Centricity in the Context of Digital Governance]. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie. Elektronnyi vestnik, vyp. 76, 2019, October.

6. Zatsarinnyi A.A., Il’in N.I., Kolin K.K., et al. Situatsionnye tsentry razvitiya v polisub”ektnoi srede [Situational Development Centers in a Multi-subject Environment]. Problemy upravleniya, 2017, no 5, pp. 31–42.

7. Kaplan R., Norton D. Strategicheskie karty. Transformatsiya nematerial’nykh aktivov v material’nye rezul’taty [Strategic Maps. Converting Intangible Assets into Tangible Results]. Moscow, Olimp-Biznes, 2005, 512 p.

8. Kaplan R., Norton D. Sbalansirovannaya sistema pokazatelei. Ot strategii k deistviyu [The Balanced Scorecard. From Strategy to Action]. Moscow, Olimp-Biznes, 2017, 320 p.