The material was prepared in the framework of developing the RAS proposals to the President of the Russian Federation V.V. Putin by the expert group of RAS economists headed by Chairman of the Board of Directors of OJSC NK “Rosneft” academician A.D. Nekipelov, advisor to the President of the Russian Federation academician S.Y. Glazyev, director of the RAS Institute of Economic Forecasting academician V.V. Ivanter, etc. The main focus of the paper is made on the need to establish a strategic management system, capable to identify romising areas of economic growth and to guide the activity of state development institutions and economic regulation instruments to their implementation.