Stories of Socialism and Communism in pre-Marx Times

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.116-121

Socialism and communism are presented today as unviable social formations. The article analyzes the real experience of successful social construction — “Paraguayan socialism” (XVII — the middle of the XIX century) and the economy of the Old Believers in Russia (from the XVII century to the mid-40s of the XIX century) — which is of great importance for the whole world and for modern Russia

Источники:

1. Sotsializm kak yavlenie mirovoi istorii [Socialism as a Phenomenon of World History]. Sait I.R. Shafarevichaб available at: http://shafarevich.voskres.ru/a13.htm.

2. Paragvaiskii eksperiment. Chast’ pervaya [Paraguayan Experiment. Part One]. VikiChtenie, available at: https://pub.wikireading.ru/195846.

3. Iezuitskie reduktsii [Jesuit Reductions]. Vikipediya, available at: https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Iezuitskie_reduktsii.

4. Zueva M.V. “Gosudarstvo” iezuitov v Paragvae [“State” of the Jesuits in Paraguay]. Mir indeitsev, available at: https://www.indiansworld.org/Articles/gosudarstvo-iezuitov-v-paragvae.html#.Yd7eklDP2pp.

5. Pyzhikov A.V. Grani russkogo raskola [Facets of the Russian split]. Moscow, Drevlekhranilishche, 2013.

6. Trudovaya etika staroobryadchestva i modernizatsiya Rossii v XIX i XX vekakh [The Work Ethic of the Old Believers and the Modernization of Russia in the 19th and 20th Centuries]. Russkii mir, available at: http://www.russ.ru/pole/Trudovaya-etika-staroobryadchestva-i-modernizaciya-Rossii-v-XIX-i-HH-vv.

7. Katasonov V.Yu. Ekonomika Stalina [Stalin’s Economy]. Moscow, Institut russkoi tsivilizatsii, 2016.

1925–1935: Locar “Legal Mechanism for ‘Pushing’ Germany to the East”. The Oil Factor

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.108-115

The article examines the factor of oil, when some influential politicians and big businessmen, primarily in Great Britain, tried to use for their far-reaching goals the factual absence of the Weimar Republic’s own oil fields. Monopolization of oil supplies in the context of the implementation of the “legal mechanism for ‘pushing’ Germany to the East” made it possible to a certain extent to manage the foreign policy activity of the Hitlerite regime

Источники:

1. Morozov S.V. Pol’sko-chekhoslovatskie otnosheniya. 1933–1939. Chto skryvalos’ za “politikoi ravnoudalennosti” ministra Yu. Beka [Polish-Czechoslovak Relations. 1933–1939. What was Hidden Behind the “Policy of Equidistance” of Minister Yu. Beck]. Moscow, MGU im. M.V. Lomonosova, 2004, 528 p.

2. Morozov S.V. K voprosu o sekretnom pol’sko-germanskom dogovore 1934 g. [On the Issue of the Secret Polish-German Treaty of 1934]. Slavyanovedenie, 2005, no 5, pp. 35–53.

3. Morozov S.V. Iz dovoennogo dos’e [From the Pre-war Dossier]. Mezhdunarodnaya zhizn’, 2007, no 1–2, pp. 194–213.

4. Morozov S.V. K voprosu o sozdanii v 1925 g. pravovogo mekhanizma “podtalkivaniya” Germanii na Vostok [On the Question of Creating in 1925 a Legal Mechanism for “Pushing” Germany to the East]. Vestnik Tomskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta, 2016, no 412, November, pp. 84–88, available at: http://journals.tsu.ru/vestnik/&journal_page=archive&id=1482.

5. Martirosyan A.B. Za kulisami myunkhenskogo sgovora. Kto privel voinu v SSSR [Behind the Scenes of the Munich  Collusion. Who Brought the War to the USSR]. Moscow, Veche, 2008, 608 p.

6. Versal’skii mirnyi dogovor [Versailles Peace Treaty]. Moscow, Litizdat NKID, 1925, 227 p.

7. Agenturnoe soobshchenie v INO OGPU pri SNK SSSR o peregovorakh kantslera Germanii Frantsa fon Papena v Parizhe o formirovanii zapadnoi voennoi koalitsii protiv SSSR [Intelligence Report to the INO OGPU Under the USSR Council of People’s Commissars About Negotiations of Eру German Chancellor Franz von Papen in Paris on Formation of the Western Military Coalition Against the USSR]. Prezidentskaya biblioteka imeni B.N. El’tsina, available at: https://www.prlib.ru/catalog/52995?page=3

8. Dokumenty vneshnei politiki SSSR [Documents of the USSR Foreign Policy]. T. XVI. Moscow, Gospolitizdat, 1970, 920 p.

9. Teichova A. An Economic Background to Munich. L., Cambridge University Press, 1974, 422 p.

10. Colvin J. Vansittart in Office. An historical Survey of the Origins of the Second World War based on the papers of Sir Robert Vansittart, Permanent Under-Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, 1930–1938. L.: V Gollancz, 1965. 360 p.

11. Ickes H.L. The Secret Diaries of Harold L. Ickes. Vol. 1. 1933–1936. N. Y., Simon & Schuster, 1953, 738 p.

12. Mackinder H.J. The Geographical Pivot of History. Geographical Journal, 1904, vol. 23, N 4, pp. 421–437.

13. Mackinder H.J. Democratic Ideals and Reality: a study in the politics of reconstruction. L., Constable and Company, 1919, 286 p.

On Similarities Between Phenomena of the Quantum and Genetic World

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.138-145

The article is dedicated to two world-famous scientists, the founder of Soviet genetics and experimental biology, Nikolay Konstantinovich Koltsov (1872–1940) and his brilliant student, the founder of chemical mutagenesis, Hero of Socialist Labour, Lenin Prize laureate, Nobel Prize nominee (1962), member-correspondent of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR Iosif Abramovich Rapoport (1912–1990). Both made a huge contribution to convergence and blending of different sciences, bridging living and non-living nature. Just over 120 years ago, two great theories emerged — the quantum and the gene one. Both theories played a revolutionary role in natural science, having established two fundamental features of the material world — discreteness and discontinuity. Speaking at the same time in the language of discontinuity, quantum physics and genetics throughout the entire 20th century were following parallel courses, enriching themselves with new facts and ideas. The laws they discovered have broken many ideas on the “good old world”, where phenomenological interconnections dominate, have reduced the essence of all things and phenomena to combinatorics and the atoms and genes activities, have given the keys to controlling many natural processes. Dynamic nature of the microworld objects’ research would continue in the 21st century, since many unsolved problems related to human needs remain in the field of high energy physics, genetics, molecular biology and nanotechnologies.

Management Schools in Russia in the 20th Century: on the History of the Issue

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-1.181.2022.126-137

The studies on the history of managerial thought do not fully cover the development of management schools in Russia in the 20th century and don’t mention many scientists, who were at the origins of scientific schools, and organizations within which they emerged. Hypotheses are put forward about how researchers in the last 30 years have made an attempt to study the schools of managerial thought in the 20th century in various organizations, especially universities. Narrative, comparative and historical research methods are used. The author describes the main schools of management in Russia in the 20th century, their origins, evolution, inspirers and leaders, as well as their main scientific works. The question of scientific schools of the two greatest mega-projects, successfully implemented in the USSR – nuclear and space project, remains unexplored. It is concluded that in Russia during the twentieth century. Management thought was developing, but it is currently extremely difficult to describe a holistic picture of the evolution of scientific management schools.

Источники:

1. Bezborodova M.A. Zarubezhnye nauchnye shkoly v psikhologii [Foreign Scientific Schools in Psychology]. Ucheb. posobie. Moscow, Moskovskii pedagogicheskii gosudarstvennyi universitet, 2020.

2. Nauchnye shkoly Voenno-vozdushnoi inzhenernoi akademii imeni professora N.E. Zhukovskogo (Voennogo aviatsionnogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta): istoriya razvitiya i sovremennoe sostoyanie: izdano k 80-letiyu VVIA im. prof. N.E. Zhukovskogo (VATU) [Scientific Schools of the Air Force Engineering Academy Named after Professor N.E. Zhukovsky (Military Aviation Technical University): History of Development and Current State: Published on the 80th Anniversary of the Air Force Engineering Academy Named after N.E. Zhukovsky (VATU)]. Moscow, Akademiya aviatsii, 2000.

3. Nauchnye shkoly Moskovskogo gosudarstvennogo tekhnicheskogo universiteta imeni N.E. Baumana. Istoriya razvitiya [Scientific Schools of the Bauman Moscow State

Technical University. History of Development]. 2-e izd. Moscow, Izd-vo MGTU im. N.E. Baumana, 2005.

4. Zaparii V.V. Nauchnye shkoly Ural’skogo federal’nogo universiteta: Entsiklopediya [Scientific Schools of the Ural Federal University: Encyclopedia]. Ekaterinburg, Izd-vo Ural’skogo universiteta, 2020.

5. Sadovnichii V.A., et al. O nauchnykh issledovaniyakh i nauchnykh shkolakh. Evraziiskoe prostranstvo [On Scientific Research and Scientific Schools. Eurasian Space]. Pod red. V.A. Sadovnichego (gl. red.), I.V. Semina, A.V. Sidorovicha. Moscow, Izd-vo Moskovskogo un-ta, 2010, 255 p. (Seriya: Evraziiskie universitety XXI veka / Evraziiskaya assots. un-tov).

6. Ustyuzhanina E.V., Evsyukov S.G., Petrov A.G., Kazankin R.V., Dmitrieva M.B. Nauchnaya shkola kak strukturnaya edinitsa nauchnoi deyatel’nosti [Scientific School as a Structural unit of Scientific Activity]. Moscow, TsEMI RAN, 2011, pp. 4, 8, 9. (Preprint #WP/2011/288).

The Limits That Choose Us. Reports to the Club of Rome: Schematization Experience

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.178.2021.76-91

It wouldn’t be too exaggerated to say that today, in the second year of the coronavirus infodemic, we live in a world designed by the Club of Rome. Moreover, here we can speak of “negative geoplanetary architecture”: the Club of Rome did not expand and complicate the current reality, but sought to limit it, to remove some of its significant elements, thereby completely changing not only the structure of the world, but also the paradigm of human existence. And the Club of Rome has succeeded in this, though it is still not clear — for better or for the worse, whether the club acted as an independent actor or as an agent of some forces interested in redistributing world financial flows? Or even acted as a Marxist “historical necessity”. In any case, it has influenced the thinking of intellectuals, economists and politicians of three generations

To the 100th Anniversary of the USSR State Planning Committee

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.177.2021.110-119

A step-by-step and objective review of the history of the State Planning Committee of the USSR (Gosplan), presented by the authors, helps to form a holistic idea of how the power of the USSR arose and what objective necessity or what subjective factors led to a radical change in the political and socio-economic structure of the country.

To the 100th Anniversary of the USSR State Planning Committee

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.176.2021.62-69

A step-by-step and objective review of the history of the State Planning Committee of the USSR (Gosplan), presented by the authors, helps to form a holistic idea of how the power of the USSR arose and what objective necessity or what subjective factors led to a radical change in the political and socio-economic structure of the country

Nesmeyanov’s Strategy. To the 300th Anniversary of the Russian Academy of Sciences

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.176.2021.52-61

Alexander Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov, one of the most underestimated presidents of the Academy of Sciences, was a great originalminded scientist who opened up organoelement chemistry to the world as an independent science and later on — an artificial food, to which the world turns again after several decades. These milestones of his biography are well known to scientific community, as well as his leadership of Moscow State University during the new complex construction on the Lenin Hills, creation of INEOS and VINITI. 10-years period of his biography, when he was a President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is much less known. It was in this position that he manifested enormous talent as an organizer of the country’s modern science management system, where the Academy of Sciences played an important role. Many thoughts and deeds of A.N. Nesmeyanov are especially relevant today.

The Bracing Vaults of Millenium: History of the Hagia Sophia of Constantinople Through the Prism of Pitirim Sorokin’s Integral Methodology

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.100-105

Historic decision to return to Hagia Sophia the status of a mosque once again proved that its history cycle has reached a new stage: from Byzantine temple — to the Ottoman mosque — through the UNESCO World Heritage Site — to the great Hagia Sophia mosque. In case of studying the historical dynamics of status, cultural significance and social functions of Hagia Sophia, the integral macrosociological theory of P.A. Sorokin is the most relevant and has got sufficient heuristic potential. The history of Hagia Sophia has been influenced and is still being affected by rhythmic sequence of three super-systems: ideational, idealistic and sensual. It’s on the one hand. On the other hand, Hagia Sophia is not only an architectural object, which in its historical dynamics has passed a difficult way from a Christian temple to a mosque, but above all — one of the main means for expressing the set of values of the ideational cultural supersystem

The Russian Way of Smart Housekeeping

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.92-99

Historically, a mode of production has developed in Russia that differs significantly from that considered in political economy as a model. At first, it clearly manifested itself in the economic activities of the Old Believers. On a national scale, he played a leading role in the period 1930–1955, after which its foundations were eroded. The article discusses its properties and potential, the possibility of implementation in modern conditions