More than eighty years have passed since the ruling elite of England, France, Italy, Germany, and Czechoslovakia signed the Munich Agreement — a treaty that destroyed the integrity of Czechoslovakia. In the era of the “post-archive revolution of the 1990s” emergence in the scientific circulation of new, previously unknown documents has caused a new round of interest to this event among historians and the public.
In the first quarter of the XXth century, just like nowadays, the issues of reorganizing Russian economy were addressed. The most important scientific work of the early XXth century is considered the book of V.I. Grinevetsky. His colleague in the Moscow Technical School N.F. Charnovsky, an outstanding scientist in the production organization sphere, the author of the world’s first manual on management, also contributed to creating the country’s economic power. The article attempts to answer the question of why namely N.F. Charnovsky, as one of the participants of the Industrial Party process, was executed in 1938.
The article is focused on the life and work of the outstanding scientist Academician Jermen M. Gvishiani. It describes the main milestones of his personal and scientific biography, marks extraordinary personality traits that enabled him to achieve outstanding success in science, to ensure implementation of unique socially significant projects in the Soviet Union, to become a creator and leader of scientific organizations that had a significant impact on the development of mankind — International Institute of Applied Systems Analysis, All-Union Scientific Research Institute for Systemic Studies, International Scientific Research Institute of management problems, to become an active member of the famous Club of Rome, the founder of new scientific directions, the author of outstanding books.
Soon we’ll celebrate the 100th anniversary from the end of the First World War. To a large extent this war is still considered as a political, not a historical event, but it is already far enough in the past and can become the subject of an impartial research. In the present situation, of particular interest are the details of unleashing the war and specifics of its institutionalization, that is, its turning into a bloody conflict for years, the cost of which — in human lives, in money terms, and in social deformations — has repeatedly exceeded the value of disputed territories and assets. The authors are interested in a slightly different problem, though closely related to the above-mentioned: mechanisms of changing military and political leaders who demonstrated their inadequacy in wartime conditions.
The name of Anatoly Nikolayevich Efimov, the first director of Scientific Research Economic Institute under the State Planning Committee of the USSR (SREI), elected in 1955, is associated with fundamentally new stage in the history of planning after the end of the Stalin era in 1953. Pioneer and fundamental developments of the interbranch balance, awarded with the USSR State Prize in 1968, methodology for forecasting the country’s economy development, widely used today in the market conditions, have made up the content and novelty of this stage, as well as the main vector of SREI’s scientific research. The choice of these directions is not a flash of reason or sudden enlightenment. Their roots go not only into the environment, but also to the turbulent and dramatic events of the 1920s, which became a time of choosing the way of the country’s development, overcoming economic and cultural backwardness in conditions of isolation and a hostile external environment. Transition from the policy of “military communism” to the NEP, the broadest democratization of society served as a powerful impetus for development of planned economic thought.
The article reveals the non-Marxist meaning of the October Revolution of 1917. The author claims that the sequence of exploiter formations has a historical goal, not taken into account by Marxism, as a system of global power. The main idea of the article is that the 1917 revolution is a struggle not against capitalism, but against the supranational elite that is building the system of global power.