Medium-term prospects for the development of the coal mining industry in the Russian Federation

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.112.2023.72-84

Considered the main provisions of international agreements that limit the use of such an energy resource as coal. The authors analyzed the real situation with the production, import and consumption of other types of energy resources, such as oil and gas, which has led to the fact that the volume of production and supply of coal in the Russian Federation to domestic and foreign (foreign) client markets is practically not reduced. According to the plan developed by the Government of the Russian Federation, the development of coal mining and the entire coal industry will develop in three stages until 2035. The tasks of the first stage are now being implemented. In addition to the further development of old fields, work will be carried out to find and develop new fields according to two development scenarios – conservative and optimistic. Both scenarios assume an increase in the volume of exported coal to those countries that are the main consumers of coal – the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of India. In 2023, the Republic of Turkey joined these countries, where coal imports are only 10% less than in the Republic of India and 45% less than in the People’s Republic of China. In order to increase the supply of coal to the countries of the Asia-Pacific region, it is planned to further develop the Baikal-Amur and Trans-Siberian Railways, as well as the construction of railway and water routes for the delivery of goods, including coal, along the North-South transport corridor to the seaport in Mumbai in the Republic of India. In addition, the Northern Sea Route from Murmansk to the ports of China will be developed. Consequently, the revenues of the federal budget of the Russian Federation from coal exports will not decrease, despite the promotion of Green Energy by foreign countries.


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Models and csenarios of development of socio-economic systems

DOI: 10.33917/mic-4.99.2021.5-11

The article defines the purpose of the study, which consists in the need to analyze the existing and projected models and scenarios for the development of Russian socio-economic systems. The analysis is carried out based on the understanding of the socio-economic system as a partial image of reality in the individual of public consciousness. A brief description of the existing socio-economic models in Russia and strategies for their development is given. The conclusion is made about the importance of the process of choosing methods for describing models of development of socio-economic systems. The goals and disadvantages of the proposed methods of describing the model of the development of socio-economic systems.

PEST-Analysis for the Years 2014 — 2024. General Conclusions

#7. Maint Games
PEST-Analysis for the Years 2014 — 2024. General Conclusions

PEST can be regarded as a high-quality analog of a quantitative mathematical model used, for example, in the budgeting process. Calculations presume a variation of some variables within the model, including the expert one. Such variation is inevitable since any model only to some extent is similar to the simulated system and the “observer’s” expert position is important. At the entrance of the mathematical model there are figures defined with some accuracy, at the output there are also figures, expertly substantiated and simulated. PEST represents a “semantic model” containing basic “event trees”. At the entrance to this model there are events that “happened”. At the output — their development forecast, if “this” has happened, “this and that” will certainly happen and with some probability “or this, or that”. The forecast presumes the work of an expert who subjects the event to a modeling framework of PEST-analysis. With events development in reality it becomes possible to compare two semantic networks, one of which is referred to “forecasted”, and the other — to “happened” events structure. An expert, and in some simple cases even a computer program, can either attribute a happened event to one of the scenario branches existing in the forecast or to come out with a suggestion on the emergence of a new branch, or, finally, to conclude that the given event is an imitation, that is, has a “non-physical character”. The latter is very important, but needs verification by subsequent events. Thus, the proposed PEST-analysis in the context of “world — country — region” is some semantic “model”, forming “forecasted” semantic trees and networks, allowing to classify operational event-series (“extract meaning”) and to forecast their further development from the strategic perspective point of view. This method seems relevant from the perspective of realization (and automation) of the problem of continuous dynamic strategic management, which is extremely important while the world system is passing ugh the “bifurcation point”.