“Our main problem is not an oil needle. The fact that we extract a lot of oil and gas is great, it provides us complete energy independence. But we are sitting on the import needle, and this is a problem”, said Viktor Viktorovich Ivanter, RAS academician, Scientific Director of the RAS Institute of Economic Forecasting. In his conversation with Natalia Leskova, a special correspondent for the ES magazine, he expressed his thoughts on the current economic situation in Russia.
The area of scientific focus of academician L.A. Ilyin — radiation medicine and radiation protection. According to his ideas and with his direct participation, medical-biological facilities and special systems of protection against one of the nuclear weapons types have been developed. Veteran of special risk units, from the first days after the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear power plant he was in the center of damage, was one of the scientific leaders that headed medical-biological and hygienic work aimed at mitigating the disaster consequences, was taking responsible decisions on the strategy and tactics of protecting the liquidators and the population. Leonid Andreevich Ilyin is the first scientist in the world who developed and substantiated the forecast of radiological consequences of this catastrophe, later confirmed by leading foreign and domestic experts. And furthermore Leonid Andreyevich is a man with an incredibly young, perky smile, lively eyes and memory that stores many amazing details which have already become history today. What lessons we need to draw, why nuclear powers are particularly accountable to humanity and what are the secrets of active longevity — our conversation dwells on all this.
Academician Robert Isganderovich Nigmatulin is one of the most authoritative oceanologists in the world. For 20 years, he headed the largest in the Russian Federation P.P.Shirshov Institute of Oceanology RAS, and now is his supervisor. Winner of the State Prize and a number of other prestigious awards, he does not consider himself a desk scientist, although many scientific problems have to be solved in laboratories. However, for an oceanogist, the most important thing is the expedition, the study of oceans and seas, which cause all climatic changes, and therefore influence conditions of life on the planet. Academician R.I. Nigmatulina has got a strategic mindset. He knows how to bring Russian science to a decent level, how to solve the problem of underfunding, and is persistent in achieving the main goal – to reach those who, having taken the government decisions, are capable to change the situation for the better. Then his beloved country, which he did not leave, although there were a lot of opportunities, would become truly rich, successful and prosperous.
On September 28 in Russia there is a professional holiday — Day of the nuclear industry worker. The domestic nuclear industry since its foundation in 1945 was one of the most important for the country — for defense, for power engineering and for other branches of the economy as well. Of course, behind the industry achievements there is the heroic work of hundreds of thousands of nuclear scientists, of the whole country. But there are some iconic figures, starting with Kurchatov and his colleagues, who guided the solution of grand objectives and added many glorious pages in the Russian and world history. Their personal biographies are largely interlaced with chronology of the nuclear industry development. Among these people there are also “atomic” ministers of different years. Today we are talking to Lev Dmitrievich Ryabev, the Soviet and Russian state and economic figure, Minister of Medium Machine Building of the USSR, deputy chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, winner of the USSR and the RF State Prizes, active participant in the liquidation of the consequences of the Chernobyl nuclear disaster and construction at the earliest possible time of the Shelter Object, awarded the highest awards of the country. We will talk about the history of the nuclear industry, its achievements, problems and prospects, as well as about the qualities that allow to solve successfully the key tasks set by the country’s leadership.
The present scientific essays was written by the author under the impression from the exhibition of archaeological findings in the National Museum named after A.V. Anokhin in Gorno-Altaisk. In order not to offend historians, culturologists, linguists and other scientists professionally dealing with the below subjects of human origin, emergence of various civilizations and languages, the author has chosen precisely the genre of an essay, but formulated according to the laws of logic and a systematic approach to solving a complex interdisciplinary problem.