Prerequisites and goals of the development of the petty-bourgeois sector of the economy in the Russia

DOI: 10.33917/mic-1.108.2023.36-45

The article presents the prerequisites for several bourgeois reforms in the 19th century on the territory of the Russian Empire, as well as the division of the bourgeoisie as a class of owners of means of production, that is, capital, into three groups – small, medium and large. Based on the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation No. 204 adopted on May 07, 2018 «On national goals and strategic objectives of the development of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2024», it is concluded that the national project «Small and medium-sized entrepreneurship and support for individual entrepreneurial initiative», and including the corresponding goals and criteria for their achievement, are focused on the revival of the petty bourgeoisie as owners of capital.

The analysis of the five goals of this national project and the criteria for their achievement showed the expected (planned) annual dynamics of the development of this sector of the economy until 2024. Comparison of the funding volumes of the corresponding five federal projects that are part of the national project under study, from three sources of funding – the state federal budget, the consolidated budgets of the constituent entities (regions) of the Russian Federation, extra-budgetary funds, made it possible to identify the most priority federal projects in terms of funding volumes.

After analyzing the structures of agricultural production by peasant and individual households, the authors revealed a fairly clear division of production sectors between these two categories of farms.



1. On national development goals and strategic tasks of the Russian Federation until 2024: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 7 May 2018 (ver. of 19.07.2018). – Access from the information and legal system «Garant».

2.    Passport of the national project «Small and Medium-sized Entrepreneurship and support for individual entrepreneurial initiative» (approved by the Presidium of the Presidential Council for Strategic Development and National Projects (Protocol No. 16 of December 24, 2018) URL:

3.    Babkina L.N., Skotarenko O.V. Features of the qualimetric approach in regional studies // Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. Economic sciences. 2013;5 (180):161-165. (In Russ.).

4.    Vukovich G.G. Dialectics of the laws of the evolution of the natural system and the economic cyclicity of the development of society. Economics of sustainable development. 2011;3 (7):27-32. (In Russ.).

5.    Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2020. Official website of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. URL:

Russian National Heritage — Under Threat!

#7. Pandora’s Deceit
Russian National Heritage — Under Threat!

Recently, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) became the subject for evidently bespoke attacks of a number of TV channels and newspapers. Attacks were characterized by deliberate distortion of truth and attempts to represent RAS in a negative light. They were accompanied by prosecutor and audit controls of academic administration. It seems to have been preparatory barrage before general offensive. The following legislative formalization of this campaign stirred up not only academic environment, but also the public as a whole.

Sergey Yulievich Witte. Uncomfortable Lessons