The purpose of the article is to determine the main directions of development of the Russian Academy of Sciences in cooperation with the executive and legislative authorities of Russia. As a rule, behind general phrases about the reform of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Russian society is poorly informed about the current activities of the Academy of Sciences. The authors set themselves the task of filling this gap, of course, by bringing in their own proposals and some vision of the tasks of the development of the Russian Academy of Sciences. The methodology of this work is a comparative analysis, approaches to setting strategic objectives for the development of science and planning this process. The results of the study made it possible to concretize the tasks of the RAS development, highlighting the segment where the Academy itself is obliged to make changes to solve the necessary tasks, as well as the area of responsibility for changes at the level of the executive and, separately, the legislative branch. In addition, the directions have been established in which the RAS has an undoubted success in implementation, requiring its increase, as well as the necessary organizational changes, the need for which is very high in the context of intensifying scientific competition and the advanced development of science. The set of proposals will make it possible to recreate the chain of “fundamental science — R&D — production”, attracting backbone corporations of a science-intensive and other profile to such interaction. The article proposes a system of promising changes in the activities of the Russian Academy of Sciences, substantiates the position that they are able to increase the efficiency of science, without reducing it to what science should give to the economy instantly.
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