The "Economic Strategies" journal

2022 #4. 2022. Resilience of tne Will




Investment Attractiveness of the Russian Energy Sector for Foreign Investors: Assessment and Recommendations

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.106-112

The article analyses the investment attractiveness of the Russian energy sector for foreign investors. Analysis is based on such indicators as the volume of energy resources’ production and export as well as their dynamics, foreign direct investment in the country’s energy industry, portfolio investment in the “green” energy industry. The author draws up a conclusion that despite the exports decrease in the main types of energy resources (oil, gas, coal, energy) over the past few years (2020–2021), Russia continues to play a leading role in the global fuel and energy complex, the volume of foreign direct investment in industry is steadily growing, the “green” energy industry is actively developing. The author also dwells on the difficulties that foreign investors have to face when investing in the Russian energy sector. The present study results in identifying the main directions for improving investment attractiveness of the Russian energy sector for potential foreign investors.

Источники:

1. Lizikova M. Nuclear energy prospects and legal challenges towards achieving sustainable development goals. E3S Web of Conferences, 2020, no 1, p. 02009.

2. Baisaeva M.U. Rol’ i znachenie inostrannykh investitsii v Rossii [Role and Importance of Foreign Investments in Russia]. Ekonomist”, 2020, no 1, pp. 80–82.

3. Vypkhanova G.V., Zhavoronkova N.G. Innovatsii v energetike — organizatsionno-pravovye aspekty [Innovations in the Energy Sector — Organizational and Legal Aspects]. Aktualnye problemy rossiiskogo prava, 2021, vol. 16, no 1 (122), pp. 189–203.

4. Tsentral’nyi bank Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Central Bank of the Russian Federation], available at: https://www.cbr.ru/

5. Obzor energetiki stran BRIKS [Overview of the BRICS Countries Energy]. Sammit BRICS, 2020, November, 17, available at: https://brics-russia2020.ru/images/114/89/1148936.pdf.

6. Balafas V., Fakiolas E.T. From energy security to energy dominance: US’ blending of politics and economics. Strategic Analysis, 2020, no 44 (2), pp. 91–105.

7. Inevatova O.A., Matushkin E.F. Problemy i perspektivy ispol’zovaniya kapital’nykh vlozhenii v energetike [Problems and Prospects of Using Capital Investments in the Energy Industry]. Tendentsii razvitiya nauki i obrazovaniya, 2021, no 69-2, pp. 21–24.

8. Nagimova A. Arabskie investitsii v rossiiskuyu infrastrukturu [Arab Investments in Russian Infrastructure]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, no 3, pp. 80–87.

9. Eksport Rossiiskoi Federatsiei prirodnogo gaza (po dannym FTS i Rosstat) [Export of Natural Gas by the Russian Federation (According to the Federal Customs Service and Rosstat)]. Tsentral’nyi bank RF, available at: https://cbr.ru/vfs/statistics/credit_statistics/trade/gas.xls.

10. Ministerstvo energetiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation], available at: https://minenergo.gov.ru/

11. Pryamye investitsii po sektoram ekonomiki [Direct Investments by Sectors of the Economy]. Tsentral’nyi bank RF, available at: https://cbr.ru/statistics/macro_itm/svs/

Sketching on Viruses

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.113-119

“Viruses stand on the borders of the living and non-living. On the one hand, they have all the attributes of a living thing: they are born, assimilate, die and, to please those who are accustomed to seeing movement in the living, move. But in chemical laboratories viruses are sometimes transformed into powder, which in appearance doesn’t differ much from a mineral that has been ground into powder. And this “viral” powder is not born, does not assimilate, does not die and, of course, if it moves, then only for the same reasons as granulated sugar. But once the virus powder, sleeping in a “dead sleep” for a long time, longer than the “sleeping princess”, is “transferred” into a living environment, for example, tobacco mosaic virus is put onto tobacco leaves, the powder in the plant cells will turn into tailed living beings. If a virus is alive, why doesn’t it die when it turns into a corpse? If it is lifeless, why, having resurrected, it lives like all living things?” (N.K. Koltsov)

Источники:

1. Lizikova M. Nuclear energy prospects and legal challenges towards achieving sustainable development goals. E3S Web of Conferences, 2020, no 1, p. 02009.

2. Baisaeva M.U. Rol’ i znachenie inostrannykh investitsii v Rossii [Role and Importance of Foreign Investments in Russia]. Ekonomist”, 2020, no 1, pp. 80–82.

3. Vypkhanova G.V., Zhavoronkova N.G. Innovatsii v energetike — organizatsionno-pravovye aspekty [Innovations in the Energy Sector — Organizational and Legal Aspects]. Aktualnye problemy rossiiskogo prava, 2021, vol. 16, no 1 (122), pp. 189–203.

4. Tsentral’nyi bank Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Central Bank of the Russian Federation], available at: https://www.cbr.ru/

5. Obzor energetiki stran BRIKS [Overview of the BRICS Countries Energy]. Sammit BRICS, 2020, November, 17, available at: https://brics-russia2020.ru/images/114/89/1148936.pdf.

6. Balafas V., Fakiolas E.T. From energy security to energy dominance: US’ blending of politics and economics. Strategic Analysis, 2020, no 44 (2), pp. 91–105.

7. Inevatova O.A., Matushkin E.F. Problemy i perspektivy ispol’zovaniya kapital’nykh vlozhenii v energetike [Problems and Prospects of Using Capital Investments in the Energy Industry]. Tendentsii razvitiya nauki i obrazovaniya, 2021, no 69-2, pp. 21–24.

8. Nagimova A. Arabskie investitsii v rossiiskuyu infrastrukturu [Arab Investments in Russian Infrastructure]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 2020, vol. 64, no 3, pp. 80–87.

9. Eksport Rossiiskoi Federatsiei prirodnogo gaza (po dannym FTS i Rosstat) [Export of Natural Gas by the Russian Federation (According to the Federal Customs Service and Rosstat)]. Tsentral’nyi bank RF, available at: https://cbr.ru/vfs/statistics/credit_statistics/trade/gas.xls.

10. Ministerstvo energetiki Rossiiskoi Federatsii [Ministry of Energy of the Russian Federation], available at: https://minenergo.gov.ru/

Only a Sacred National Idea will Save Russia

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.120-127

In analyzing the essence of the Russian national idea and the way of reviving spiritual and moral values, it is necessary not only to understand the causes and events that destroyed the Soviet state, but also to build a program of overcoming the systemic crisis based on our own historical experience in the historical and philosophical context. The power perceived in Ancient Russia, along with the adoption of Christianity, gained sacredness from Byzantium, which absorbed all the experience of Antiquity, Ancient Judea and the Roman Empire. The article formulates a historiosophical concept, defines the systemic crisis of statehood, and outlines a way out of the time of troubles through the genuine institution of democracy in Russia, the Zemsky Sobor (Russian People’s Assembly), which is inherent in Russian civilization.) from the indigenous classes: the clergy and the peasantry, the officers and the Cossacks, the merchants and the resurgent Russian entrepreneurship, the workers and peasants, the scientific and engineering and creative elite.

Who Wants to be the First? From Competition to Service by Faith in Christ

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.128-133

The article dwells on spiritual prerequisites and weaknesses of the modern conception of competition, as well as the possibility of transforming it from the point of view of Truth — the Orthodox faith in Jesus Christ, the Son of God.

Источники:

1. Porter M. Konkurentsiya [Competition]. Moscow, Vil’yams, 2005, p. 30.

2. Khazin M.L. Mir na poroge novykh vremen [World on the Threshold of New Times]. World Crisis. 2012, July, 22, available at: http://worldcrisis.ru/crisis/1000041.

3. Sorokin P.A. Tainstvennaya energiya lyubvi [Mysterious Energy of Love]. Sotsiologicheskie issledovaniya, 1991, no 8, p. 124.

4. Iustin (Popovich), prepodobnyi. Filosofskie propasti [Philosophical Abysses]. Moscow, 2005, p. 263.

5. Brandenburger А.М., Nalebuff В.J. Co-Opetition: A Revolution Mindset That Combines Competition and Cooperation. N. Y., 1996.

6. Deming U.E. Novaya ekonomika [New Economy]. Moscow, 2006.

7. Polterovich V.M. Pozitivnoe sotrudnichestvo: faktory i mekhanizmy evolyutsii [Positive Collaboration: Factors and Mechanisms of Evolution]. Voprosy ekonomiki, 2016, no 11, pp. 5–23.

8. Vazhenina I.S., Vazhenin S.G. Konkurentnoe sotrudnichestvo territorii v sovremennom ekonomicheskom prostranstve [Competitive Cooperation of Territories in the Modern Economic Space]. Ekonomika regiona, 2020, no 2, pp. 406–419.

9. Lalu F. Otkryvaya organizatsii budushchego [Discovering Organizations of the Future]. Moscow, 2017, p. 242.

10. Semenchuk V.V. Biznes-khaking. Ishchi uyazvimosti konkurentov — vzryvai rynok [Business Hacking. Look for Competitors’ Vulnerabilities — Blow up the Market]. Moscow, 2019, p. 5.

11. Shlyakhov A.L. Top-menedzher mafii. Polnyi kurs po likvidatsii konkurentov [Mafia Top Manager. Complete Course on Eliminating Competitors]. Moscow, 2012, p. 27.

12. Kropotkin P.A. Vzaimnaya pomoshch’ sredi zhivotnykh i lyudei kak dvigatel’ progressa [Mutual Aid Among Animals and People as an Engine of Progress]. Moscow, 2018.

13. Glaz’ev S.Yu. Nravstvennye nachala v ekonomicheskom povedenii i razvitii — vazhneishii resurs vozrozhdeniya Rossii [Moral Principles in Economic Behavior and Development — the Most Important Resource for Russia’s Revival]. Ekonomika i obshchestvennaya sreda: neosoznannoe vzaimovliyanie. Moscow, 2008, pp. 420, 421.

14. Obert T.B. Teoriya konkurentsii [Competition Theory]. Ucheb. posobie. Saratov, 2014, p. 11.

15. Katasonov V.Yu. Kapitalizm. Istoriya i ideologiya denezhnoi tsivilizatsii” [Capitalism. History and Ideology of “Monetary Civilization”]. Moscow, 2015, p. 832.

16. L’vov D.S. Kakaya ekonomika nuzhna Rossii? [What Economy Does Russia Need?]. Ekonomicheskie i sotsial’nye peremeny v regione, 2003, no 20, p. 15.

17. Chan Kim V., Moborn R. Strategiya golubogo okeana [Blue Ocean Strategy]. Moscow, 2016, p. 14.

18. Bulgakov S.N. Filosofiya khozyaistva [Philosophy of Economy]. Moscow, 2009, pp. 173, 174.

19. Druker P.F. Effektivnyi rukovoditel’ [Effective Leader]. Moscow, 2020, p. 22.

Implied (Implicit) Limitations on Corporate Governance

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.134-143

The author examines the compliance of the legal nature of the company with the principle of social justice. The shareholder has priority in corporate governance by virtue of the economic and legal status. The interests of a participant (shareholder) are derived from the interests of a commercial organization. The goals of the company must take into account the interests of other stakeholders in modern conditions. The author proposes a tool of “implied limitations” which allows to include an element of social justice in managerial discretion.

Источники:

1. O rekomendatsiyakh Bazel’skogo komiteta po bankovskomu nadzoru Printsipy sovershenstvovaniya korporativnogo upravleniya” [On the Recommendations of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision “Principles for Improving Corporate Management”]. Kodeks, available at: https://docs.cntd.ru/document/902328968.

2. Postanovlenie Konstitutsionnogo suda RF ot 23 aprelya 2012 g. N 10-P “Po delu o proverke konstitutsionnosti abzatsa desyatogo stat’i 2 Zakona Rossiiskoi Federatsii ‘O zanyatosti naseleniya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii’ v svyazi s zhaloboi grazhdanki E.N. Erlikh” [Resolution of the RF Constitutional Court of April 23, 2012 No. 10-P “On the Сase of Сhecking Сonstitutionality of the Tenth Paragraph of Article 2 of the Law of the Russian Federation “On Employment in the Russian Federation“ in Relation to the Complaint of Citizen E.N. Erlich”]. Konsul’tantPlyus, available at: http://www.consultant.ru/document/cons_doc_LAW_128931/

3. Informatsionnoe pis’mo Banka Rossii ot 12 iyulya 2021 g. N IN-06-28/49 “O rekomendatsiyakh po raskrytiyu publichnymi aktsionernymi obshchestvami nefinansovoi informatsii, svyazannoi s deyatel’nost’yu takikh obshchestv” [Bank of Russia Information Letter No. IN-06-28/49, Dated July 12, 2021, “On Recommendations for Disclosing Non-Financial Information by Public Joint Stock Companies Related to the Activities of Such Companies”]. Vestnik Banka Rossii, 2021, no 48.

4. Measuring Stakeholder Capitalism: Towards Common Metrics and Consistent Reporting of Sustainable Value Creation. White paper. September 2020. World Economic Forum, available at: https://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_IBC_Measuring_Stakeholder_Capitalism_Report_2020.pdf.

5. Bebchuk L., Tallarita R. The Illusory Promise of Stakeholder Governance. Cornell Law Review, 2020, vol. 106, pp. 91–178.

6. Elhauge E. The Inevitability and Desirability of the Corporate Discretion to Advance Stakeholder Interests. Harvard Law School, Cambridge, 2021, pp. 1–39.

7. Elhauge E. Sacrificing Corporate Profits in the Public Interest. New York University Law Review, 2005, vol. 80, pp. 733–869.

8. Blair M., Stout L. A Team Production Theory of Corporate Law. Virginia Law Review, 1999, vol. 85, pp. 247–328.

9. Postanovlenie Evropeiskogo suda po pravam cheloveka ot 7 iyulya 2020 g. po delu “Al’bert i drugie protiv Vengrii” [Judgment of the European Court of Human Rights of 7 July 2020 in the Case of Albert and Others v. Hungary]. Arbitrazhnyi protsessual’nyi kodeks Rossiiskoi Federatsii, available at: https://apkrfkod.ru/pract/postanovlenie-espch-ot-07072020/

Modeling the Consequences of a Nuclear Strike

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.6-16

The risks of increasing international tension have sharply exacerbated the possibility of a nuclear conflict. The main geopolitical players in the international arena have actually recognized the possibility and even expediency of using nuclear weapons. In this context, the need to simulate the consequences of a nuclear strike in order to prepare for emergencies of a critical nature has become extremely urgent. The present article analyzes foreign experience of using digital simulators to this end. The authors outline Russian views on applying agent-based simulation methods for this purpose in the analysis of non-military (civilian) aspects of a nuclear blow effects.

Источники:

 

1. Grabchak E.P., Loginov E.L. Podgotovka sistemy gosudarstvennogo upravleniya Rossii k sverkhkriticheskim situatsiyam prirodnogo i tekhnogennogo kharaktera [Preparing the Public Administration System of Russia for Supercritical Situations of Natural and Man-made Nature]. Problemy upravleniya bezopasnost’yu slozhnykh sistem: Materialy XXIX Mezhdunarodnoi nauchno-prakticheskoi konferentsii. Moskva, 15 dekabrya 2021 g. [Problems of Safety Management of Complex Systems: Proceedings of the XXIX International Scientific-practical Conference. Moscow, December 15, 2021]. Moscow, Institut problem upravleniya im. V.A. Trapeznikova RAN, pp. 99–103.

2. Ageev A.I., Bochkarev O.I., Grabchak E.P., Loginov E.L. Setetsentricheskaya sistema povyshennoi zhivuchesti upravleniya energetikoi Rossii v slozhnoprognoziruemykh kriticheskikh usloviyakh [Net-Centric System of Elevated Survivability of Energy Management in Russia Under Difficult-to-predict Critical Conditions]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2021, vol. 23, no 3 (177), pp. 6–17, available at: DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.177.2021.6-17.

3. Moiseev N.N., Aleksandrov V.V., Tarko A.M. Chelovek i biosfera: Opyt sistemnogo analiza i eksperimenty s modelyami [Man and the Biosphere: The Experience of System Analysis and Experiments with Models]. Moscow, Nauka, 1985, 271 p.

4. Yadernaya zima i ee komp’yuternoe modelirovanie v 80-kh [Nuclear Winter and Its Computer Simulation in the 80s]. Khabr, 2022, May, 28, available at: https://habr.com/ru/company/ruvds/blog/668256/

5. Turco R.P., Toon O.B., Ackerman T.P., Pollack J.B., Sagan C. Nuclear winter: Global consequences of multiple nuclear explosions, 1984.

6. Kokoshin A.A., Arbatov A.G., Vasil’ev A.A. Yadernoe oruzhie i strategicheskaya stabil’nost’ (stat’ya pervaya) [Nuclear Weapons and Strategic Stability (Article One)]. SShA: Ekonomika, politika, ideologiya, 1987, no 9, p. 3.

7. John M. Gates. The U.S. Army and Irregular Warfare. The College of Wooster Wooster, Ohio, available at: https://discover.wooster.edu/jgates/files/2011/11/fullbook.pdf.

8. Starr S. Deadly Climate Change From Nuclear War: A threat to human existence, available at: https://www.armscontrol.ru/pubs/en/deadly-climate-changefromnuclear-war.pdf.

9. Velikhov E., Kokoshin A. Yadernoe oruzhie i dilemmy mezhdunarodnoi bezopasnosti [Nuclear Weapons and International Security Dilemmas]. Mirovaya ekonomika i mezhdunarodnye otnosheniya, 1985, no 4, p. 20.

On Sanctions and the Exchange Rate

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.17-21

The article emphasizes that freezing of Russian gold and foreign exchange reserves was previously accurately predicted by Russian experts. Attention is drawn to the fact that weakening of the ruble was one of the goals of the sanctions impact on the Russian economy that Western countries were bearing in mind. It is obvious that the exact opposite — preventing its depreciation and turning the ruble into a stable strong currency — is an anti-sanction measure. With high dependence of the Russian economy on imports, as well as in the situation when it is necessary to find alternative ways for imports (primarily for investment), which will lead to their higher prices with corresponding consequences, an excessive exchange rate depreciation may adversely affect economic development, especially in a long term. In addition, extremely important is ensuring stability of the exchange rate. It is concluded that stable and non-depreciating ruble will form the basis for consistent development of business and expand the possibilities for using the ruble in foreign trade settlements as well. It is particularly relevant in the context of restrictions on the use of leading currencies in foreign trade.

Источники:

 

1. Ershov M.V. Sanktsii protiv RF: mekhanizmy neitralizatsii [Sanctions Against the Russian Federation: Neutralization Mechanisms]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2017, no 7, pp. 46–51.

2. Baiden ogovorilsya, zayaviv, chto dollar stoit 200 rublei [Biden Made a Slip of the Tongue Saying That the Dollar is Worth 200 Rubles]. RIA Novosti, 2022, March, 26, available at: https://ria.ru/20220326/bayden-1780271172.html.

3. Sanktsii SShA protiv TsB i Minfina perekroyut dostup k rezervam dlya podderzhki rublya [US Sanctions Against the Central Bank and the Ministry of Finance will Block Access to Reserves for Supporting the Ruble]. Interfaks, 2022, February, 28, available at: https://www.interfax.ru/business/825191.

4. Bank Rossii. O chem govoryat trendy [Bank of Russia. What are the Trends Saying?]. BCS Express, 2022, April, 22, available at: https://bcs-express.ru/novosti-i-analitika/bank-rossii-o-chem-govoriat-trendy.

5. SMI: EK zayavila, chto ukaz ob oplate gaza v rublyakh narushaet sanktsii ES [Media: EC Said That the Decree on Gas Payments in Rubles Violates EU Sanctions]. RIA Novosti, 2022, April, 14, available at: https://ria.ru/20220414/gaz-1783434893.html.

6. Russia’s ruble is the strongest currency in the world this year. CBS NEWS, 2022, May, 27, available at: https://www.cbsnews.com/news/russia-rublecurrency-2022/

7. Ershov M.V. Valyutnaya politika kak faktor natsional’noi bezopasnosti [Monetary Policy as National Security Factor]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2015, no 4, pp. 20–29.

8. Washington Times. 2015, April, 30.

9. Ershov M.V. Ekonomicheskii suverenitet Rossii v global’noi ekonomike [Russia’s Economic Sovereignty in the Global Economy]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 2005, 280 p.

10. BIS. Quarterly Review. International banking and financial market developments. June 2022.

Oorfene Deuce’s Mistake, or Some Remarks on Country Image

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.28-35

In the proposed material, the author draws attention to the fact that in the conditions of recent forced reputational losses for Russia, the problem of forming an attractive national image becomes extremely relevant. The author examines the position of Russia in the field of national image in comparison with a number of foreign states. Based on the approaches of the theoretical founder and leader of country branding, S. Anholt, the author reviews the state of affairs in various spheres of Russian life, and concludes that the most promising areas for the formation of a new positive image of Russia are the sphere of culture and the tourism industry.

Источники:

1. Nye J. Bound to Lead: The Changing Nature of American Power. New York, Basic Books, 1990.

2. Nye J. Soft Power: The Means to Success in World Politics. New York, Public Affairs Group, 2004.

3. Russkie v Amerike. Kniga sudeb [Russians in America. Book of Fates].Comp. V. Levin. Minsk, Smolensk, 1996, p. 190.

4. Kotler Ph., Haider D.H., Rein I.J. Marketing Places: Attracting Investment, Industry, and Tourism to Cities, States and Nations. Free Press, 1993.

5. Ward S.V., Ward S. Selling Places: The Marketing and Promotion of Towns and Cities. 1850–2000. Taylor & Francis, 1998.

6. Anholt S. Places: Identity, Image and Reputation. London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2009.

7. Germany maintains top “nation brand” ranking, Canada and Japan overtake the UK to round out the top three. Ipsos, available at: https://www.ipsos.com/en/nation-brands-index-2021.

8. The Good Country Index, available at: https://index.goodcountry.org/

9. The Good Country Equation: How We Can Repair the World in One Generation. Berrett-Koehler, 2020.

10. Saimon Ankhol’t: Problema Rossii v tom, chto ee schitayut obuzoi [Simon Anholt: Russia’s Problem is That it is Considered a Burden]. SNOB, available at: https://snob.ru/selected/entry/56182/

11. Otchet o rezul’tatakh ekspertno-analiticheskogo meropriyatiya “Opredelenie osnovnykh prichin, sderzhivayushchikh nauchnoe razvitie v Rossiiskoi Federatsii: otsenka nauchnoi infrastruktury, dostatochnost’ motivatsionnykh mer, obespechenie privlekatel’nosti raboty vedushchikh uchenykh” [Report on Results of the Expert-analytical Event “Identification of the Main Reasons Hindering Scientific Development in the Russian Federation: Assessment of the Scientific Infrastructure, Sufficiency of Motivational Measures, Provision of Attractiveness of the Leading Scientists’ Work”]. FGOSVO, available at:  https://fgosvo.ru/uploadfiles/Work_materials_disscusion/sp.pdf.

12. Muzychuk V.Yu. Finansirovanie kul’tury v Rossii: shag vpered i dva nazad [Financing Culture in Russia: One Step Forward and Two Steps Back]. Zhurnal NEA, 2019, no 1(41), pp. 208–215.

13. Governance Index: World Map. SOLABILITY, available at: https://solability.com/the-global-sustainable-competitiveness-index/the-index/governance-capital.

14. Reiting turisticheskikh stran [Rating of Tourist Countries]. TouristicLog, available at: http://www.alexeytour.ru/strany_mira_tour-rating.html.

Epic Fail of BigTech Digital Transformation. Where is the Key to Level Up? [Epic Fail of Digital Transformation of Transnational Corporations. Where is the Key to a Level up Management?]

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.46-55

World trend of the XXI century — Industry 4.0 and digital platforms. In 2014, General Electric (GE) partnered with Big Tech giants — AT&T, Cisco, IBM and Intel — to take control of the global manufacturing industry created the Industrial Internet Contributors Association (Industry IoT Consortium IIC). By 2021, the IIC included Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, Accenture, Huawei, Bosch, EMC, SAP, Siemens, SAS and others. GE together with BigTech created the industrial cloud platform Predix, declaring it to be practically an “operating system” for factories, analogous to Android or iOS in the world of machines, the language of the industrial Internet.

However, in 2020 GE and Predix suffered a devastating fiasco.

The article provides an analysis of the root causes and problems, and formulates the requirements for digital platforms of industrial software. The author describes alternative solutions and new principles for implementing digital transformation of Industry 4.0 based on the closing technologies of digital genesis, graph-centric platforms, tools, models and systems of collective conscious scientifically based balanced management (industrial, corporate, social, state). Closing technologies offered by Russia have got an enormous social and political resource.