Social Networks, Their Basic Factors, as Well as Their Role in Society and the State in the Context of Digital Transformation

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.26-35

Society is historically associated with the state, which plays the role of an institution of power and government. The main task of the state is life support, survival, development of society and the sovereignty of the country. The main mechanism that the state uses to implement these functions is natural social networks. They permeate every cell of society, all elements of the country and its territory. However, they can have a control center, or act on the principle of self-organization (network centrism). The web is a universal natural technology with a category status in science. The work describes five basic factors of any social network, in particular the state, as well as what distinguishes the social network from other organizational models of society. Social networks of the state rely on communication, transport and other networks of the country, being a mechanism for the implementation of a single strategy and plan. However, the emergence of other strong network centers of competition for state power inevitably leads to problems — social conflicts and even catastrophes in society due to the destruction of existing social institutions. The paper identifies the main pitfalls using alternative social networks that destroy the foundations of the state and other social institutions, which leads to the loss of sovereignty, and even to the complete collapse of the country.

Cellular Paradigm of Network Organization: Implications for Present-Day Society

DOI: 10.33917/es-6.172.2020.68-77

Microorganisms and cultivated cells from human or animal tissues form complex network structures (colonies, biofilms, flocs, granules, etc.) that are characterized by efficient communication and behavior coordination in the absence of a central pacemaker. The decentralized (flat) network organization of such structures is due to the functioning of (a) information-transmitting intercellular contacts, (b) a signal field created by distant communication systems, including the quorum-sensing system; and (c) a biopolymer matrix that cements the cells of the whole network structure. Microbial network structures exist in the human organism, especially in the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract. The cellular networks engage in complex interaction with the host organism. The organism represents a complex combination of hierarchical structures and decentralized networks and includes the brain, the peripheral nervous system, the immune system, and the endocrine system.

The interaction between the microbiota and the host may produce both positive and negative effects on the host’s physical and mental health, because decentralized networks are known to possess not only useful but also potentially harmful properties. Communication between microbial cells and the host organism involves neurochemicals, i.e., chemical compounds, whose functions include impulse transmission between nervous cells. In the final section, the cellular paradigm of network organization is envisaged as the conceptual basis of organizational technology aimed at creating efficient non-hierarchical creative teams that are cemented by common values and goals (the network matrix).

Theories of Society and Risks of Its Development

DOI: 10.33917/es-2.168.2020.124-133

The article deals with various types of characteristics of society and its sphere of activity. Various types and groups of theories of society development are studied. It is revealed — what values are laid by scientific schools in the life of society. Global problems and contradictions, which are a brake and at the same time a stimulus for its development, are defined. The planetary scheme of interrelations and mutual influence of global risks for society is developed. The gradation of modern problems of society from risks with the indication of the main problems of social and economic character is carried out. The separate directions of development of society and tools which reduce emergence and development of risks for it are considered

Modelling Cyclical Development of Society

#2. Breakthrough Betting
Modelling Cyclical Development of Society

The article discusses various types of systems development cycles and their mechanisms. The paper presents development of socio-economic systems, describes periods of their dynamics, as well as sources of their formation and cycle stimulators in the form of innovations, values, needs with the dynamics of cycles speeding up. The combination of socio-economic and socio-cultural cycles in the spiritual life of society is described. A planetary model of society development is proposed. A variant of spiral-cyclical development of society in phases is formed.

Change of Social Formations and Civilizations Compatibility

#5. Longstanding Generation
Change of Social Formations and Civilizations Compatibility

The article presents various types and structures of social formations. Сivilizational and formational approaches are considered, their comparative analysis is given. The author presents classification structure of civilizations and the place of human values with elements of civilization. He also deals with issues of interrelations, mutual influence and interaction of civilizations with regard to present-day problems of society and communities. The levels and forms of civilizations interaction are compared taking into account the processes of globalization, glocalization and humanization. The function of compatibility and interaction of factors of civilizations general development is formulated.

Decentralized Network Structures in the Scientific Community, the Educational System, Civil Society and Business: the Hirama Model

#2. Sisyphean Task
Decentralized Network Structures in the Scientific Community, the Educational System, Civil Society and Business: the Hirama Model

The present work focuses on the applications of decentralized network structures with split leadership to various spheres of society. They are denoted herein as hiramas (High-Intensity Research And Management Associations). Special emphasis is placed on the use of hiramas in the organization of nontraditional interdisciplinary creative labs and NGOs in civil society, interactive teaching, and in business. It is stressed that the importance of traditional hierarchical institutions exemplified by universities and academic research institutions is not diminished by the spread of alternative decentralized network structures. Hierarchical institutions are to be held responsible for the consolidation and self-identification of the national scientific community, for furthering the interests of the scientific community in the face of external and internal challenges, and for evaluating the performance of decentralized network structures to select the hiramas that should receive material and ideological support.

The Structure of Society, Interaction of Its Subsystems and Elements

#6. The Charm of Unattainable Peaks
The Structure of Society, Interaction of Its Subsystems and Elements

The article presents the structural subsystems of society, which are the mechanisms of its support (stabilization or preservation) with emphasis on social relations. The autor analizes the views and opinions of scientists regarding the social organism filling with the basic system elements. Types of social structures are presented, including socioethnic, socio-demographic, socio-spatial, stratification one and others. The definition of social interaction is given with nuances: socio-economic, socio-political and socio-cultural interactions. Interactions and mutual influences of the sources and stimulators of society renewal are defined. The variant of functional conformity of the compatible environment of renewing and subsystems of the society organizations is offered. The assumption on expansion of the society subsystems to seven spheres on the basis of a cyclic model of its development is set forth.

Social Chaperons

#7. Hysteresis Loop
Social Chaperons

The development of network society (the network revolution) in the present-day world necessitates the establishment of networked regulatory organizations that can exert a positive influence on this process. They represent analogs of biomolecular chaperons that function in the living cell. Such social chaperons can design optimal scenarios of the network revolution. They can take account of various possible organizational options (paradigms) of network structures. Chaperons can creatively use paradigms that function in biological systems ranging from unicellular organisms to schooling fish, social insects, and apes. Social chaperons can contribute to their implementation using the whole spectrum of possible strategies of promoting expedient network scenarios and convincing political leaders and government regulators of their importance for humankind.

Complexity, net-centrism and self-organization management

#9. Execution Excess
Complexity, net-centrism and self-organization management

The paper proposes an approach that gives a scientific character to the concept of network-centric management, and considered systemic paradigms allow to consider it as an engineering construction. It proposes the concept and management contour models of the first and the second kind, revealing communities’ management mechanisms and processes of their self-organization. They represent not only new opportunities, but also unfamiliar threats. Only basic knowledge of socio-engineering will help to build a security system, to ensure the survival and development of society. However, given any methodological complexity the human factor plays a decisive role. Management of complex systems requires self-dependence, intelligence coordination and real time actions, the synergy of knowledge, intuition and participants’ sagacity as well as harmonious interaction with the environment, including society.

The Role of Fundamental Science in Providing Financial-Economic Security

#9. Execution Excess
The Role of Fundamental Science in Providing Financial-Economic Security

With the capitalist economy development more evident becomes the tendency of a definite isolation of financial sphere from the so-called “real sector” of economy. This “isolation” is supported the basic principles of economic thought, in particular by money neutrality principle (the classic dichotomy) of the neoclassical school. Today, financial sector and financial capital have transformed from a mediator serving reproduction into a key factor, largely determining economic development of both individual national economies and the world economy as a whole. Hypertrophic growth of financial sector causes a widening gap between material-substantial and financial flows. Resulting imbalances lead to severe crises phenomena, the most powerful of which is the global crisis began in 2008. Its effects are still determining a high degree uncertainty of the whole world development. This article deals with scientific comprehension of the problem of providing financial and economic security of an open economy, which includes Russia, in arising difficult conditions of increasing instability and global competitive tension.