Poverty, Inequality, National Wealth: Empirical Analysis and Policy Implications

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-4.184.2022.70-81

The article is devoted to the study of poverty and inequality in the economic growth of the most developed countries, with a general focus on the formation of social policy consistent with the growth policy. The purpose of the study is to conduct a macroeconomic analysis of poverty, inequality and wealth in the G7 countries, China and Russia, with the ensuing substantiation of a social development strategy for the Russian economy. The methodology is made up of empirical analysis, as well as regression modeling, which make it possible to identify in a comparative way the connectivity of the dynamics of relevant indicators of social development  — the level of national poverty and wealth, the Gini coefficient and general inequality, growth rate, human development index. The result of the study is a precisely confirmed empirical relationship between the level of poverty and inequality for the countries considered, that is, a high value of one parameter corresponds to a high value of another. Consequently, poverty reduction may imply a reduction in inequality, and not only relative, but also absolute. In addition, it was found that for developed countries, high levels of poverty and inequality mean low values of the human development index. Social policy aimed at human development requires that its instruments be harmonized, including the necessary alignment with the current macroeconomic policies to stimulate growth. The magnitude of national wealth does not guarantee high growth rates, as well as low levels of inequality and poverty. A high level of inequality can accompany economic growth, having a positive effect on the growth rate, as for the Russian economy. In this regard, the current policy needs a reasonable selection of measures to stimulate growth and, at the same time, measures to reduce inequality, which can and should not be limited only to tax changes that require special confirmation of influence, but to institutional changes that regulate the creation and appropriation of income.


1. Aganbegyan A.G. Kak preodolet’ stagnatsiyu i novyi krizis, obespechiv sotsial’no-ekonomicheskii rost [How to Overcome Stagnation and New Crisis, Providing Socio-Economic Growth]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2020, vol. 22, no 5, pp. 34–45, DOI: 10.33917/es-5.171.2020.34-45; no 6, pp. 6–19, DOI: 10.33917/es-6.172.2020.6-19.

2. Adzhimoglu D., Robinson Dzh.A. Pochemu odni strany bogatye, a drugie bednye. Proiskhozhdenie vlasti, protsvetaniya i nishchety [Why Some Countries are Rich and Others are Poor. The Origin of Power, Prosperity and Poverty]. Moscow, AST, 2016, 693 p.

3. Livshits V.N. Bednost’ i neravenstvo dokhodov naseleniya v Rossii i za rubezhom [Poverty and Inequality of the Population Incomes in Russia and Abroad]. Moscow, IE RAN, 2017, 52 p.

4. Stiglits Dzh. Tsena neravenstva. Chem rassloenie obshchestva grozit nashemu budushchemu? [The Cost of Inequality. How does Social Stratification Threaten Our Future?]. Moscow, Eksmo, 2015, 512 p.

Economic Growth and Inequality: Revision of the Economic Policy

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.176.2021.76-87

Alexander Nikolaevich Nesmeyanov, one of the most underestimated presidents of the Academy of Sciences, was a great originalminded scientist who opened up organoelement chemistry to the world as an independent science and later on — an artificial food, to which the world turns again after several decades. These milestones of his biography are well known to scientific community, as well as his leadership of Moscow State University during the new complex construction on the Lenin Hills, creation of INEOS and VINITI. 10-years period of his biography, when he was a President of the USSR Academy of Sciences, is much less known. It was in this position that he manifested enormous talent as an organizer of the country’s modern science management system, where the Academy of Sciences played an important role. Many thoughts and deeds of A.N. Nesmeyanov are especially relevant today.

Paradoxes of Social Policy in Developing Social Infrastructure

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.176.2021.38-44

The state’s responsibility for development of social infrastructure has not been questioned by modern Russian and foreign economists for many years. An indicator of implementing the national goals of the Russian Federation development for the period up to 2030 is not only an increase in life expectancy up to 78 years, but also a half reduction in the poverty level compared to indicator of 2017 [1], which points out the need not only to ensure additional income for the elderly, but also to reduce their costs. In the context of limited budgetary opportunities, the state’s social policy is focused on developing commercial sector of social services and the sector of socially oriented NPOs that are not interested in development of capital-intensive infrastructure component at social tariffs. Private stationary facilities are targeted at wealthy people and are inaccessible to most elderly people who have to turn to the gray services market. Excessive commercialization has embraced even state-owned infrastructures, created or reconstructed through the mechanism of public-private partnership. This results in limited availability of public good and competition for access to it.

To the Question of Medico-Social Assistance to Persons Injured at Work and Occupational Diseases

#1. Minds Confusion
To the Question of Medico-Social Assistance to Persons Injured at Work and Occupational Diseases

Rehabilitation is one of the Central places in the system of world medical and social problems. Returning to work, socially useful activities of persons with temporary or permanent disability, prevention of disability and improvement of the quality of life of persons affected by industrial accidents, as well as persons with occupational diseases or risk factors for their development is an important state task. The system of medical, social and professional rehabilitation requires improvement.

Human Reproductive Rights and Assisted Reproductive Technologies: New Forms and Configurations of Inequality

#9. Preserving humanness
Human Reproductive Rights and Assisted Reproductive Technologies: New Forms and Configurations of Inequality

The paper is devoted to consideration of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) in the context of social changing. ART raise many medical, social, ethical, political and religious questions, often leading to controversial and sometimes inaccurate opinions about the outcomes of pregnancies resulting from these techniques. We analyze the process of ART implementation in Russia. Such consequences as new types of social inequality and new forms of social mobility, new aspects of kinship, transforming traditional social roles are focus of our interest. Using and distribution of ART do not simply reflect the existing structure of the socio-economic differentiation, but produce new configurations of inequality both globally and within countries, particularly in the area of reproductive rights and reproductive health. Access to ART depends on social status, gender, economic status, religious beliefs and national characteristics for different social groups. We also can speak about reproductive bioeconomics where the reproductive labor e.g. surrogate motherhood is a central element and reproductive tissues are main objects to be exchanged. ART may be considered a great example how modern science and technology may influence social relations and social practices.

Demographic Birth Wave and Future Population Fluctuations in Different Age Groups: Challenges for Social Policy

#2. Liberal Indolence Inertia
Demographic Birth Wave and Future Population Fluctuations in Different Age Groups: Challenges for Social Policy

Demographic projections — the basis for management decisions in the social policy field. Based on the average projection variant of Rosstat at the beginning of 2014 for the annual age-sex groups, we offer analysis of the population dynamics of the main socio-demographic groups in 2013–2031 and comments on social policy in response to demographic challenges (changes in demographic structure and quantity fluctuations in demographic groups that require expansion and contraction of social infrastructure over the next two decades). The proposed social policies are mainly associated with increasing elasticity of social infrastructure and implementation of the balance policy “family — work”.

Implementation of State Social Policy in the Sphere of Local Passenger Traffic (in Terms of Rail Transport)

#5. Cultural Revolution

Suburban traffic affects the interests and possibly even quality of life of tens of millions of people, for that reason the problem gains in political significance.

Transformation and Modernization

#4. 25 000 000: Wo dein Рlatz, Genosse, ist?!

 March 29, 2011 in the Sergievsky Hall of the Cathedral of Christ the Savior, enlarged meeting of the Club of Orthodox entrepreneurs took place in the format of public hearings on key strategic issues of the country’s development, problems of social policy, childhood protection, formation of fair and conscientious financial system.

Non-Economic Facets of the Economy: the Unknown Interference

#1. Hollywood as a password

In my opinion, the market overcomes the state because they put an equals sign between business and economy. Business exists within the economy, but not equals to it. And only the state responsible for the economy and for the fates of people, as opposed to business, responsible only for the fate of profits, is capable to represent the interests of society as a whole.