Russia in Supercritical Situation: Managing Restoration of Life-Support Functions to Overcome the Consequences of a Natural Macro Catastrophe

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-5.179.2021.28-35

Supercritical fluid is a state of matter when its temperature and pressure are above the critical point. Supercritical situation is a state of the economy in its cumulative manifestations and mutual influence, whereby the state of key life-support profiles is below the critical point of controllability. Various forecasts are increasingly actualizing the probability of a natural (and man-made) macro-catastrophe (a large meteorite fall, an earthquake of 10–12 points and others, as well as a pandemic similar to COVID–19, but with more severe consequences). As the coronavirus pandemic has shown, modern civilization is becoming ever more vulnerable to such disasters. To overcome the destabilizing trends of a natural (and man-made) macro-catastrophe, it is necessary to adopt proactively a set of measures in Russia that will drastically increase the efficiency of public administration in relation to the list of regulated resource,  economic, technical, social and other parameters incorporating mechanisms and procedures of public administration into market mechanisms and the budgeting structure with regard to external and internal factors of the supersystem’s vital activities

Scenarios for the Development of World Nuclear Power in the Context of Limited Fossil Resources

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.177.2021.24-31

Forecasts of the scenarios for the development of the world nuclear power industry are given, taking into account the limited resources of natural uranium and the concept of sustainable development. On the basis of a new model of dynamic forecasting of the depletion of fossil resources, possible restrictions on the development of hydrocarbon and nuclear energy at thermal reactors are considered. It is shown that the existing nuclear power based on thermal reactors does not have a long-term perspective (more than 100 years) for a number of reasons. The most promising development in order to maintain and, moreover, increase the contribution of nuclear power plants to electricity generation, is the two-component nuclear power system with a combined uranium-plutonium nuclear fuel cycle. However, the widespread introduction of fast-neutron reactors is possible in the second half of this century. For the next few decades, the tasks of economic substantiation of the diversification of business product lines in the field of a closed nuclear fuel cycle for scenarios of the development of nuclear power on thermal reactors in conditions of limited traditional reserves of natural uranium are urgent

Demography in the System of Scenarios and Coordinates

DOI: 10.33917/es-8.174.2020.44-55

The article examines scenarios of a long-term demographic situation and politics, evolution of the value orientations, the latest approaches to assessing the development sustainability, the dispositional theory of demographic behavior