The article analyzes the philosophy of space and time attempting to show the difference in approaches to the problem of time among Western and Russian philosophers. Western philosophy sought to understand time through psychologism. The extreme expression of the Western psychological are manifest in the concepts developed by St. Augustine and Kant. Augustine believed that time exists only in the human soul, while Kant believed that time and space are forms of perception of reality that cannot fully be grasped. Russian philosophy, in contrast, has aspired to ontologism. In the 20th century the Eurasians conceived of an original concept of a transformed ontology, thus creating their own version of a philosophy of space and time. This outlook had direct links to the discovery of quantum physics. Pyotor Savitsky believed that time absorbs and releases energy and that energy triggers the process of history. Based on this concept of energy, Lev Gumilev developed a historical concept and theory of ethnogenesis, the formation of national identity.
This article summarizes the results of the International Youth Forum “Future of Eurasian and European Integration: Foresight — 2040”, regarding the economic integration within the European, Eurasian and Asian space. The high interdependence of European and Eurasian markets especially, make strong social and political relations essential in achieving long run economic development, growth and stability in the region. Consequently, this report proposes a C3 strategy encompassing the ideals of Cooperation, Compatibility and Competition in encouraging and facilitating the exchange of goods and services across the EU-EAEU and Asia (China). Specifically, it highlights four main sectors — Transport and Infrastructure, Finance, Technology and Energy through which the C3 strategy could potentially increase economic integration in the EU-EAEU and Asian space by 2040.
The European Union (EU) and Kazakhstan have established close economic and trade relations much thanks to EU Strategy for Central Asia and Kazakh state program Path to Europe. Bilateral trade have been growing steadily since 2002. Today EU is Kazakhstan’s first trade partner with annual turnover of ,1 billion representing a half of the country total trade in 2016 and the largest investor, ahead of Russia and China. EU imports from Kazakhstan are dominated by energy (minerals, fuels) products. The main EU exports to Kazakhstan include machinery and transport equipment, other manufactured goods and chemicals. In 2015 Kazakhstan has joined WTO with the EU consistently supporting Kazakhstan’s accession. Over the past two decades, Kazakhstan and EU have developed a strong and mutually beneficial energy cooperation. Major EU-based energy companies have significant investments in the Kazakh oil and gas industry. Currently, around 70% of Kazakhstan oil exports go to Europe, corresponding to 6.5% of the EU total oil imports. The 2017-address by the President Nursultan Nazarbayev comprise an industrial strategy aimed at modernizing Kazakhstan’s economy by diversifying it away from overdependence on extractive industries, targeting R&D and joining the top 30 most developed countries by 2050. Therefore Enhanced Partnership and Cooperation Agreement signed in 2015 offers new opportunities for Kazakhstan and EU and could be interesting for partners in the Eurasian Economic Union.
Macro-strategic game of world actors around the oil prices — is not a matter of business, it is a matter of global domination. If Russia sustains translated from abroad strategic trend of macro-organized instability in the form of geo-manipulated oil prices decline, it will mean that the Russian model is not inferior to the US and the EU ones as the main models of forming basic segments of society that finally confirms our status: return among the great powers. Statement of the new forces alignment in the global economy: a legal succession of modern Russia (Third Rome) from the Byzantine, then the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union as one of the world’s key political, economic and civilizational centers has occurred.