Russia’s International Specialization: Opening and Missed Chances

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-6.186.2022.86-91

We describe the “window of opport unity” objectively opened up after the coronacrisis for Russia’s entering advanced service niches in global industrial chains and improving its international specialization. We show that after falling under Western sanctions in Spring 2022, Russia has lost this opportunity and suffers a technological rollback due to isolation from global markets.

References:

1. Export by Product Group. 2020. WITS, available at: https://wits.worldbank.org/

2. Smorodinskaya N.V., Katukov D.D., Malygin V.E. Global’nye stoimostnye tsepochki v epokhu neopredelennosti: preimushchestva, uyazvimosti, sposoby ukrepleniya rezil’entnosti [Global Value Chains in the Age of Uncertainty: Advantages, Vulnerabilities, Ways for Enhancing Resilience]. Baltiiskii region, 2021, no 3, pp. 78–107.

3. Ivanov D. Viable supply chain model: Integrating agility, resilience and sustainability perspectives-lessons from and thinking beyond the COVID-19 pandemic. Annals of operations research, 2020. P. 1–21.

4. World Bank. World development report 2020: Trading for development in the age of global value chains. Washington, DC, World Bank, 2020.

5. World Bank. Russia integrates: Deepening the country’s integration in the global economy. Washington, DC, World Bank, 2020.

6. Abdrakhmanova G.I., et al. Sektor IKT v 2021 godu: na pike rosta v preddverii novykh uslovii [ICT Sector in 2021: the Pinnacle of Growth on the Threshold of New Conditions]. Tsifrovaya ekonomika, 2022, no 56(240), available at: https://issek.hse.ru/news/655861546.html.

7. Smorodinskaya N.V., Katukov D.D. Shansy vykhoda Rossii na rynki Industrii 4.0 cherez uluchshenie svoikh pozitsii v raspredelennom proizvodstve [Russia’s Opportunities for Entering Industry 4.0 Markets by Improving Its Position in Distributed Production]. Zhurnal Novoi ekonomicheskoi assotsiatsii, 2022, no 1(53), pp. 223–231.

8. Panel’ monitoringa sanktsii protiv Rossii [Russia Sanctions Dashboard]. Castellum.AI, available at: https://www.castellum.ai/russia-sanctionsdashboard

9. Bank Rossii. Makroekonomika i rynki [Bank of Russia. Macroeconomics and Markets]. O chem govoryat trendy, 2022, no 2, available at: https://cbr.ru/Collection/Collection/File/40953/bulletin_22-02.pdf.

10. Simola H. Trade sanctions and Russian production. BOFIT. Policy Briefs, 2022, no 4.

11. Chorzempa M. Export controls against Russia are working — with the help of China. The Peterson Institute for International Economics, 2022, available at: https://www.piie.com/blogs/realtime-economic-issues-watch/export-controls-against-russia-are-working-help-china.

12. Bank Rossii. Osnovnye napravleniya edinoi gosudarstvennoi denezhno-kreditnoi politiki na 2023 god i period 2024 i 2025 godov [Bank of Russia. The Main Directions of the State Monetary Policy for 2023 and the Period of 2024 and 2025]. Moscow, Bank Rossii, 2022.

13. Chebakova D., Balashova A. Uchastniki rynka otsenili novuyu volnu uezzhayushchikh iz Rossii aitishnikov [Market Participants have Assessed a New Wave of IT Specialists Leaving Russia]. RBK, 2022, 28 sentyabrya, available at: https://www.rbc.ru/technology_and_media/28/09/2022/633324f39a7947518c6fd452.

Communicative interactions of suppliers of energy resources in the Arctic territories on the basis of digitalization

DOI: 10.33917/mic-5.106.2022.87-99

The article presents a case study of a big company operating in the Russian Arctic Zone in order to explain the need for digitalisation of communication between energy resource suppliers and customer markets. Currently, the main way of communication between the energy supplier in question and its customer markets is contractual relations. Their timeliness and quality are becoming particularly important, especially for big businesses. The quality of a resource supply contract directly affects the completeness of the resource supply and performance of the schedule agreed in the contract. Contract performance directly influences the financial and economic per-formance of the company and, consequently, its competitiveness on customer markets. A contract as a main communication tool is the critical legal instrument, regardless of the annual number and scope of contracts. It applies to various contracts, from several big orders for companies (enterprises) on sectoral customer markets to tens of thousands on a consumer market reaching individuals and households.

References:

1. Babkin N., Bespalova S., Senetskaya L., Skotarenko O. Tools for digitalization of economic processes for supporting management decision-making in the Arctic region. 4th International Scientific Conference on Arctic: History and Modernity; Saint Petersburg, Russian Federation 17-18 April 2019.

2.   Babkina L.N., Skotarenko O.V. Features of the qualimetric approach in regional studies // Scientific and Technical Bulletin of the St. Petersburg State Polytechnic University. Economic sciences. 2013;5(180):161-165. (In Russ.).

3.   Bodrunov S, Plotnikov V, Vertakova Y. Technological Development as a Factor of Ensuring the National Security, Proceedings of the 30th International Business Information Management Association Conference — Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth, Madrid. 2017. 8-9 November 2017. pp.66-74.

4.   Kelchevskaya N., Shirinkina E. Regional determinants of effective use of human capital in the digital economy. Economy of Region. 2019;2:465-482.

5.   On national development goals and strategic tasks of the Russian Federation until 2024: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 7 May 2018 (ver. of 19.07.2018), Collected Laws of the RF, 20 (14.05.2018) Art. 2817.

6.   On the Strategy for Scientific and Technical Development of the Russian Federation: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation of 1 December 2016 № 642, Collected Laws of the RF, 49 (05.12.2016) Art. 6887.

7.   On assigning the default supplier status: Order of the Russian Ministry for Energy of 23 January 2015. №14, not published.

8.   Pasandideh H., Taghi S., Niaki A., Mousav S. Two metaheuristics to solve a multiitem multiperiod inventory control problem under storage constraint and discounts. Economica. 2013.

9.   Regions of Russia. Socioeconomic indicators – 2020. Official website of the Russian Federal State Statistics Service. URL: https://rosstat.gov.ru/

Political Role of the Dunbar Project in Developing the Global Financial Architecture

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.164-167

Digitalization is one of the main transformation processes of the modern system of global interactions, changing the nature of social links not only at the technical and economic, but also at the political level. Herewith, technological innovations also become instruments of political influence. The present article analyzes the management structure of one of the leading participants in the global financial market — the Bank for International Settlements (hereinafter — BIS) and highlights the important place the BIS occupies in the global financial architecture on the example of the Dunbar project, being developed in its innovation hub. In digital age the BIS has assumed a new leading role in exploring, developing and testing digital innovations in the central banking sector. It is noted that potential to use the BIS for political purposes is great, given that the Dunbar project will have far-reaching consequences for the structure of modern international relations.

Источники:

1. Biały B. Social media: from social exchange to battlefield. The Cyber Defense Review, 2017, vol. 2, N 2, p. 75.

2. Farakh A.S. Rol’ Banka mezhdunarodnykh raschetov v protsesse evropeiskoi integratsii. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta, 2020, no 4, pp. 75–84.

3. Promoting Global Monetary and Financial Stability. The Bank for International Settlements after Bretton Woods, 1973–2020. Edited by Claudio Borio, Stijn Claessens, Piet Clement, Robert N. McCauley, Hyun Song Shin. NY.: Cambridge University Press, 2020, p. 60.

4. Statutes of the Bank for International Settlements (of 20 January 1930; text as amended on 7 November 2016). Bank for International Settlements, 2016, 29 p., available at: https://www.bis.org/about/statutes-en.pdf.

5. Central bank digital currencies: The next disruptor. Deloitte Development LLC, 2021, September, 4, available at: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Financial-Services/gx-fsi-central-bank-digital-currencies.pdf.

6. Annual Economic Report 2021. Bank for International Settlements, 2021, 95 p., available at: https://www.bis.org/publ/arpdf/ar2021e.pdf.

7. Lyons N.S. Just say no to CBDCs: A central bank digital currency would enable a totalitarian nightmare. The Upheaval, 2022, March, 11, available at: https://theupheaval.substack.com/p/just-say-no-to-cbdcs?s=r.

8. Enhancing cross-border payments: Stage 3 roadmap. Financial Stability Board, 2020, p. 6, available at: https://www.fsb.org/wp-content/uploads/P131020-1.pdf.

9. Project Dunbar: International settlements using multi-CBDCs. Bank for International Settlements, 2022, p. 8, available at: https://www.bis.org/publ/othp47.pdf.

10. Farrell H., Newman A.L. Weaponized interdependence: How global economic networks shape state coercion. International Security, 2019, vol. 44, N 1, p. 45.

The Failure of Automated System of Planning Calculations (ASPC) as Theoretical and Methodological Mistake of the State Planning Committee: Analysis and Conclusions

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.142-147

Real economic growth and development is no longer conceivable without digital revolution achievements. However, to this day, introduction of these achievements into the national economy is far from being the easiest task, since its solution entails a number of methodological and conceptual problems. That was also understood in the USSR after the end of the Second World War, when society for the first time in history thought about improving the national economy management based on the latest technological solutions. The project of automating economic planning, officially called the automated system of planning calculations (ASPC) became a new unique solution of that time. Such a system was supposed to bring Soviet planning to a qualitatively higher level, however, due to theoretical and methodological contradictions contained in the concept, the Soviet digitalization project initially went the wrong way and was never brought to its logical conclusion. The question is whether it was possible to implement ASPC with the same capacities, but with the different theoretical and methodological basis.

Источники:

 

1. Lebedinskii N.P. Osnovy metodologii planirovaniya i avtomatizatsii planovykh raschetov [Fundamentals of Planning and Automation Methodology for Planned Calculations]. Ucheb. dlya sistemy perepodgot. i povysheniya kvalifikatsii ruk. kadrov nar. khoz-va. ANKh pri Sovete Ministrov SSSR. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1989, p. 102.

2. Metody i modeli ASPR: itogi i perspektivy [ASPC Methods and Models: Results and Prospects]. Moscow, Ekonomika, 1989, p. 6.

3. Avanproekt avtomatizirovannoi sistemy planovykh raschetov Gosplana SSSR i gosplanov soyuznykh respublik [Preliminary Design of an Automated System for Planning Calculations of the State Planning Committee of the USSR and the State Planning Committees of the Union Republics]. Moscow, 1969, p. 12.

4. ASPR — avtomatizirovannaya sistema planovykh raschetov (osnovnye printsipy proektirovaniya) [ASPС — Automated System of Planning Calculations (Basic

Design Principles)]. Moscow, TsEMI AN SSSR, 1970, 130 p.

5. Lebedinskii N.P. Voprosy sozdaniya i funktsionirovaniya avtomatizirovannoi sistemy planovykh raschetov [Issues of Creation and Functioning of an Automated System of Planning Calculations]. Ucheb. posobie. Moscow,ANKh SSSR, 1979, p. 10.

6. Veduta E.N., Dzhakubova T.N. Ekonomicheskaya nauka i ekonomiko-matematicheskoe modelirovanie [Economic Science and Economic-Mathematical Modeling]. Gosudarstvennoe upravlenie. Elektronnyi vestnik, 2016, no 57, pp. 287–307.

7. Veduta N.I. Sotsial’no effektivnaya ekonomika [Socially Efficient Economy]. Moscow, Izd-vo REA, 1999, 254 p.

8. Galushka A.S., Niyazmetov A.K., Okulov M.O. Kristall rosta. K russkomu ekonomicheskomu chudu [Crystal of Growth. To the Russian Economic Miracle]. Moscow, 2021, 360 p.

9. Elena Veduta. Otvet “Kommersantu”: chto takoe model’ mezhotraslevogo mezhsektornogo balansa [The Answer to Kommersant: What is the Model of Intersectoral Cross-industry Balance]. Regnum, 2021, November, 5, available at: https://regnum.ru/news/polit/3415609.html.

Features and Directions of Real Estate Valuation for the Purposes of State Economic Policy in the Context of Digitalization

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.130-135

The article deals with topical issues of digital cadastral accounting, calculating the value of a real estate object in the context of the dynamics of market indicators. The statistics of the distribution of Russian cities by the indicator of the average level of real estate prices in the context of market types in 2020 are reflected. An approach to the formation of reports on the results of real estate valuation is proposed.

Источники:

 

1. Khrustalev B.B., Ayupova Z.V. Osnovnye napravleniya effektivnogo razvitiya rynka kommercheskoi nedvizhimosti v zhilom sektore [The Main Directions of Effective Development of the Commercial Real Estate Market in the Residential Sector]. Ekonomika stroitel’stva, 2021, no 1, 44–53.

2. Zinkovskii M.A. Ekonomika i grazhdanskii oborot: nekotorye aspekty vzaimosvyazi [Economics and Civil Circulation: Some Aspects of the Relationship]. Gosudarstvennaya vlast’ i mestnoe samoupravlenie, 2021, no 5, pp. 29–34.

3. Belyaev M.K. Tsifrovye metamorfozy torgovli [Digital Metamorphoses of Trade]. Problemy natsional’noi strategii, 2021, no 2, pp. 85–98.

4. Volovich N.V., Kovalev D.V. Voprosy osparivaniya rezul’tatov opredeleniya kadastrovoi stoimosti ob”ektov nedvizhimosti. Part 1. Metodologiya [Issues of Challenging the Results of Determining the Cadastral Value of Real Estate Objects. Part 1. Methodology]. Imushchestvennye otnosheniya v Rossiiskoi Federatsii, 2021, no 2, pp. 53–64.

5. Predvaritel’nye itogi rynka nedvizhimosti za 2020 god, perspektivy 2021 ot ekspertov rossiiskoi gil’dii rieltorov [Preliminary Results of the Real Estate Market for 2020, Prospects for 2021 from Experts of the Russian Guild of Realtors]. Rossiiskaya gil’diya rieltorov, 22 p., available at: https://rgr.ru/Uploads/Redactor/3b97d3b0-5e08-4c89-889c-4efe3c0acb92/rgr_itogi_2020_goda_predvarit.pdf.pdf.

6. Analiticheskaya sistema ob”ektov nedvizhimosti [Analytical System of Real Estate Objects], available at: https://tbankrot.ru/lp/ned.

7. Yablonovskaya M.Yu. Metody otsenki upravleniya informatsionno-analiticheskoi sistemoi kadastra nedvizhimosti munitsipal’nogo obrazovaniya. Pokolenie budushchego: vzglyad molodykh uchenykh – 2015: Sb. nauchnykh statei 4-i Mezhdunarodnoi molodezhnoi nauchnoi konferentsii [Methods of Assessing the Management of the Information and Analytical System of the Real Estate Cadastre of the Municipality. The Generation of the Future: the View of Young Scientists-2015. Collection of Scientific Articles of the 4th International Youth Scientific Conference]. V 4 t. Kursk: Universitetskaya kniga, 2015.

8. Yarotskaya E.V., Matveeva A.V., Zaitseva Ya.V. Osnovy otsenki ob”ektov nedvizhimosti [Fundamentals of Real Estate Valuation]. Ucheb. posobie, Krasnodar, KubGAU, 2020, 66 p.

9. Stroitel’stvo [Construction]. Rosstat, available at: https://rosstat.gov.ru/folder/14458.

10. Lavrova E.V., Morgun T.N., Polyakova O.E. Analiz rynka nedvizhimosti kak istochnik informatsii dlya formirovaniya kadastrovoi stoimosti [Analysis of the Real Estate Market as a Source of Information for the Formation of the Cadastral Value]. Fundamental’nye issledovaniya, 2018, no 6, pp. 148–153.

Innovation Cluster as an Institution for Developing Russia’s Innovative Economy

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-3.183.2022.64-69

Supply support policy, which is becoming more and more relevant in Europe and America due to overheated demand, is also relevant for Russia. At the same time, active growth of the state’s information capabilities can be used to mutually coordinate the goals of social and economic development under condition of the focus on integrated development of the innovation environment and in case when the innovation cluster is the optimal institution. First of all, it forms the structure of innovative industry with a wide layer of small and medium-sized businesses, reducing transaction costs. Secondly, the combination of competition and cooperation in a cluster is especially advantageous in the innovation culture of Russia, which is distinguished by the intrinsic value of mastery and innovative community. Thirdly, the cluster makes possible to resolve a conflict between digital platforms and local economy, using the advantages of digitalization and localization to meet mutual interests that contributes to the public welfare growth.

Источники:

1. Obzor mezhdunarodnoi praktiki podderzhki ekonomiki i naseleniya v usloviyakh bor’by s pandemiei koronavirusa v Armenii, Velikobritanii, Germanii, Danii, Ispanii, Italii, Kazakhstane, Kitae, Niderlandakh, SShA, Finlyandii, Frantsii, Shvetsii, Yuzhnoi Koree, Yaponii [Review of International Practice of Supporting the Economy and the Population in the Context of Fighting the Coronavirus Pandemic in Armenia, Great Britain, Germany, Denmark, Spain, Italy, Kazakhstan, China, Netherlands, USA, Finland, France, Sweden, South Korea, Japan], available at: https://isp.hse.ru/data/2020/04/29/1544579194/COVID-19_stimulus%20packages_countries260420.pdf.

2. Cochrane J.D. The Revenge of Supply. Project Syndicate, available at: https://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/supply-shortages-inflation-result-ofgovernment-policies-by-john-h-cochrane-2021-10.

3. Makhalina O.M., Makhalin V.N. Svoevremennye i adekvatnye mery po podderzhke ekonomiki i naseleniya Rossii v period pandemii [Timely and Adequate Measures to Support the Economy and Population of Russia During the Pandemic]. Vestnik RGGU. (Seriya: Ekonomika. Upravlenie. Pravo), 2021, no 1, pp. 56–70.

4. Vlasova V., Roud V. Cooperative Strategies in the Age of Open Innovation: Choice of Partners, Geography and Duration. Foresight and STI Governance, 2020, vol. 14, no 4, pp. 80–94, DOI: 10.17323/2500-2597.2020.4.80.94.

5. Bator F.M. Fine Tuning. In: Eatwell J., Milgate M., Newman P. (eds) The World of Economics. The New Palgrave, Palgrave Macmillan, London, 1991, available at: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-21315-3_35.

6. Minski Kh. Stabiliziruya nestabil’nuyu ekonomiku [Stabilizing Unstable Economy]. Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Izd-vo Instituta Gaidara, fakul’tet svobodnykh iskusstv i nauk SPbGU, 2017, 624 p.

7. Berdin A.E., Berdina M. Regional’nye osobennosti razvitiya osobykh ekonomicheskikh zon. Na primere stran latinoamerikanskogo regiona [Regional Specific Features of Development of Special Economic Zones. On the Example of the Latin American Countries]. Latinskaya Amerika, 2021, no 3, pp. 33–54.

Digitalization of the process of electricity consumption in residential buildings of the Arctic zone

DOI: 10.33917/mic-2.103.2022.75-84

The article identifies negative factors affecting the economic state and development of electricity industry in Murmansk Oblast cities and towns and provides a rationale for smart systems of energy consumption management based on digitalisation of the metering process. In particular, the high demand for and the scarcity and inefficient use of energy in the Arctic have laid the groundwork for the Smart House Project within the National Projects for Housing and Urban Environment and Digital Economy. Key results of the project include a reduction in consumer debt for energy, reduced costs of reading and processing data from electricity meters, increased efficiency of enforcing energy consumption restrictions, increased economic efficiency of the sector, and safety for people living in residential houses.

References:

1. On functioning of retail electricity markets and full and (or) partial restriction of power consumption. Decree of the RF Government of 4 May 2012 №442 (ver. of 29.12.2020). Collected Laws of the Russian Federation. 07.01.2013 №1. Art. 45.

2.  On amendments in Russian Federation legal acts due to development of electricity (power) metering systems in the Russian Federation. Federal Law 522-FZ of 27 December 2018. Collected Laws of the Russian Federation. 31.12.2018 №53 (Part I). Art. 8448.

3. National Project Data Sheet: Housing and Urban Environment (2018). approved by the Board of the Council for Strategic Development and National Projects attached to the RF President. Protocol of 24.12.2018 №16. Official website for legal information. URL: https://base.garant.ru/72190282/

4.  National Project Data Sheet: National Programme for a Digital Economy in the Russian Federation.  Аpproved by the Board of the Council for Strategic Development and National Projects attached to the RF President. Protocol of 04.06.2019 №7. Official website for legal information. URL: https://base.garant.ru/72190282/

5. Bodrunov S., Demidenko D., Plotnikov V. Reindustrialization and the formation of the «Digital economy»: harmonization of trends through the process of innovative development // Managerial consulting. 2018;2 (110):43-54. (In Russ.).

6. Bodrunov S., Plotnikov V., Vertakova, Y. Technological Development as a Factor of Ensuring the National Security // Proceedings of the 30th International Business Information Management Association Conference — Vision 2020: Sustainable Economic development, Innovation Management, and Global Growth. Madrid. 2018. 8-9 November. pp.66-74.

7. Kelchevskaya N., Shirinkina E. Regional determinants of effective use of human capital in the digital economy // Economy of Region.2019;15(2):465-482. (In Russ.).

8.  Skotarenko O., Babkin A., Bespalova S., Senetskaya L. Tools for digitalization of economic processes for supporting management decision-making in the region, IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 302 (1). 6 August. kod 012147

9. Frolov D., Lavrentyeva A. Цифровая экономика как объект регулирования: взгляд институциональной теории // Economic analysis: theory and practice. 2019;15(4)33-44. (In Russ.).

Digital transformation in the context of socio-economic development of regions: problems and prospects

DOI: 10.33917/mic-2.103.2022.65-74

The article defines the purpose of the study, which is to identify the most pressing problems of digital transformation at the regional level. A brief description of the digital transformation strategies of several subjects of the Russian Federation, differing in the level of socio-economic development, is presented. The authors also present a comparative analysis of the regions in six mandatory areas of digitalization. It is concluded that it is necessary to create an appropriate infrastructure, including new models of interaction between business, scientific organizations, authorities and, as a result, the formation of a high level of public confidence in the reliability and security of digital infrastructure.

References:

1. Voronina E.V., Ushakova E.V., Fugalevich E.V. Digital transformation of the activities of regional authorities as a form of crisis mitigation // Creative Economy. 2022;16(1):37. (In Russ.). doi: 10.18334/ce.16.1.114146

2. Dobrolyubova E.I., Yuzhakov V.N., Efremov A.A., Klochkova E.N., Talapina E.V., Startsev Ya.Yu. Digital future of public administration based on results.  M.: Publishing house «Delo» RANEPA, 2019.  pp. 37-38. (In Russ.).

3.  Pechatkin V.V., Vildanova L.M. The level of digitalization of types of economic activity as a factor of their competitiveness in a pandemic // Issues of innovative economics.  2021;11(1):48. (In Russ.).

4.  On the Strategy for the Development of the Information Society in the Russian Federation for 2017-2030: Decree of the President of the Russian Federation. URL: http://www.kremlin.ru/acts/bank/41919

5.  Strategy in the field of digital transformation of the sectors of the economy, social sphere and public administration of St. Petersburg: approved at an expanded meeting of the Presidium of the Council for Strategic Development and Project Activities in St. Petersburg, protocol No. 6 of 25.08.2021. URL: https://digital.gov.ru/uploaded/files/protokolrasshirennogozasedaniyasoveta25082021.pdf

6. Strategy in the field of digital transformation of the sectors of the economy, social sphere and public administration of the Republic of Tatarstan: approved by the Resolution of the Cabinet of Ministers of the Republic of Tatarstan dated August 18, 2021, No. 748. URL: https://pravo.tatarstan.ru/rus/file/npa/2021-08/828959/npa_828960.pdf

7. Strategy in the field of digital transformation of the sectors of the economy, social sphere and public administration of the Kurgan region: approved by the Order of the Government of the Kurgan region of August 19, 2021, No. 161-r. URL: //digital.gov.ru/uploaded/files/d45494549.pdf

8. Strategy in the field of digital transformation of the sectors of the economy, social sphere and public administration of the Oryol region: approved by the Order of the Governor of the Oryol region dated August 20, 2021, No. 54-r. URL: http://www.consultant.ru/regbase/cgi/online.cgi?req=doc;base=RLAW127;n=77576#uaYyXwSTwaUqy3rJ

9. Strategy in the field of digital transformation of sectors of the economy, social sphere and public administration of the Republic of Kalmykia for the period 2022-2024: approved by the Decree of the Republic of Kalmykia dated August 16, 2021, No. 36. URL: http://publication.pravo.gov.ru/Document/View/0800202108170002

Housing and Construction Ecosystem: Technological Breakthrough

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es-2.182.2022.72-85

Based on methodological analysis and extensive empirical data involved, the article proposes an original approach to developing initial positions for the concept of forming housing and construction ecosystems. The main criteria for evaluating feasibility of using a new organizational form for implementing the plans to achieve strategic socio-economic goals, facing the country, and realizing a long-term development strategy for the construction industry as well as for housing and communal services are considered. It is proposed to choose technological engineering as a core of the construction ecosystem. The article formulates a number of practical recommendations

Источники:

 

1. My govorim o programme razvitiya Sibirskogo regiona na desyatiletiya [We are Talking About the Development Program of the Siberian Region for Decades]. RBK, 2021, September, 6, available at: https://www.rbc.ru/newspaper/2021/09/06/6131fab69a79471a71a0b412.

2. Grishkin I.I. Ponyatie informatsii [The Notion of Information]. Moscow, Nauka, 1973, p. 12.

3. Vanisova E. Transformatsiya nauki v element marketinga ne bezobidna [Transformation of Science into an Element of Marketing is not Harmless]. NG-nauka, 2021, September, 22.

4. Chto takoe ekosistema [What is Ecosystem]. Profil’, 2021, no 48–49, December, 20, p. 48.

5. Tsutsumi S. Puti peremen [Pathways of Change]. Moscow, Progress, 1982, p. 97.

6. Proraby perekroiki [Foremen of Redrawing]. Kommersant”, 2021, December, 16, available at: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/5130609.

7. Mysli-NeMysli [Thoughts-NonThoughts]. Telegram, 2021, December, 9, available at: https://telegram.me/mislinemisli/9912.

8. Esli ty ne umeesh’ byt’ developerom, to stanovis’ podryadchikom [If You Can’t Be a Developer, then Become a Contractor]. Kommersant”, 2022, January, 12, available at: https://www.kommersant.ru/doc/5157145?query=Shcherbina.

9. Putin: stroitel’nyi kompleks stanet lokomotivom rosta pri vosstanovlenii ekonomiki [Putin: the Construction Complex will Become a Locomotive of Growth in the Economy Recovery]. TASS, 2020, April, 16, available at: https://tass.ru/ekonomika/8261871.

10. Borisov D. Drugogo kachestva stroika [Construction of a Different Quality]. Vedomosti, 2022, January, 26, available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/opinion/articles/2022/01/25/906386-drugogo-kachestva.

11. Shokhina E. Renovatsiya s shirokim radiusom porazheniya [Renovation with a Wide Radius of Damage]. Vedomosti, 2020, September, 21, available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2020/09/21/840703-renovatsiya-shirokim.

12. Shokhina E. Rossiiskoi ekonomike ne khvataet slozhnosti [Russian Economy Lacks Complexity]. Vedomosti, 2020, September, 29, available at: https://www.vedomosti.ru/economics/articles/2020/09/29/841465-rossiiskoi-ekonomike.

13. Korolev N. AT Consulting obluchat investitsiyami [AT Consulting will be Irradiated with Investments]. Kommersant”, 2021, December, 20, available at:

Antimonopoly Regulation: Priorities in Changing World

DOI: https://doi.org/10.33917/es.2.182.2022.32-38

The article focuses on changes in global markets induced by digitalization of economy that caused new challenges to antimonopoly regulation. In this context, the author considers digital platforms and use of algorithmic pricing by economic entities. The author proposes to delineate between different types of platforms and their classification in platforms — exchanges or trade spots and multisided markets and to assess the impact of both types on competition. The article also considers the use of digital algorithms by entities as a factor of concerted conduct and implicit collusion among the market participants. In this context, the author attempts to assess the influence of humans and algorithms on sustainability of implicit collusion.

Both problems are considered in the context of global scale of entities. It limits possibilities of law enforcement against their monopolistic conduct by national competition authorities, as well as national sovereignty when faced with global corporations. In conclusion, the author stresses the necessity of search of new means of countering monopolization in digital markets

Источники:

1. ICN 2021, available at: https://icn2021budapest.hu/site/#

2. Ageev A.I. Kartina mira [Picture of the World]. Ekonomicheskie strategii, 2019, no 4, p. 5, available at: https://www.inesnet.ru/wp-content/mag_archive/2019_04/ES2019-04-Slovo.pdf.

3. Howard A. Shelansky. Information, Innovation and Competition Policy for Internet. University of Pennsylvania Law Review, 2013, N 161, pp. 1699–1701.

4. Competition Policy. European Commission. Case AT.39740 Google Search (Shopping), available at: https://ec.europa.eu/competition/elojade/isef/case_details.cfm?proc_code=1_39740.

5. Monopolies Commission: Digital change requires legal adjustments regarding price algorithms, the media sector and the supply of medicines. Monopolkommission, available at: https://perma.cc/QW5S-UB8Z.

6. Transcript of FTC Hearings Session No. 7: Competition and Consumer Protection in the 21st Century — Day 2. U.S. FED. TRADE COMM’N 19-84 (Nov. 14, 2018), available at: https://www.ftc.gov/system/files/documents/public_events/1418693/ftc_hearings_session_7_transcript_day_2_11-14-18_0.pdf.

7. Kai-uwe K hn & Steve Tadelis, Algorithm Collusion. CRESSE, 2017, available at:  http://www.cresse.info/uploadfiles/2017_sps5_pr2.pdf.